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Full text of "Waverly, a study in neighborhood conservation"

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WAVERLY 

A STUDY 

IN NEIGHBORHOOD 
CONSERVATION 



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WAVERLY 



A STUDY IN 
NEIGHBORHOOD 
CONSERVATION 




FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK BOARD 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

1940 



Letter of Transmittal 



WASHINGTON, D. C., July 1, 1940. 

To THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK BOARD. 

JOHN H. FAHEY, Chairman. 

T. D. WEBB, Vice Chairman. 

FRED W. CATLETT. 

DR. W. H. HUSBAND. 

FRANK W. HANCOCK, Jr. 

The following report incorporates the data and conclusions developed thus 
far in the Waverly Community Conservation Test in the city of Baltimore, 
which you recently authorized. 

It is hoped that this report will not only supply valuable information on the 
major underlying causes of structural and economic blight in Waverly, but will 
also provide a general remedy which can be successfully applied to similar 
urban problems throughout the United States. 

The conservation of property values to prevent the vast losses that now 
result from neighborhood decay, and the rehabilitation of areas which are 
already threatened with obsolescence, depend on informed and energetic local 
leadership. In this report, prepared under my direction by Arthur Goodwillie 
as Economic Assistant, we have endeavored to make available to that leader- 
ship, in the simplest form, vital data from a highly important but virtually 
unexplored field. I believe it will constitute a valuable addition totheexisting 
library on urban housing. 

DONALD H. McNEAL, 
Deputy General Manager, 
Home Owners' Loan Corporation. 



HI 



Contents 



Page 
Letter of Transmittal in 

Foreword vin 

Frontispiece x 

The Problem of Urban Decay 1 

Growth Increase retarded Cost of urban blight Municipal 
services Disease Crime . 

Decay or Preservation 3 

Life cycle Neighborhood decline A national obligation Demo- 
lition, a surgical operation Conservation, a preventive remedy- 
Not a cure-all Leadership and cooperation. 

Federal Home Loan Bank Board 6 

Its interest Savings and loan institutions Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation Value of F. H. L. B. B. security H. 0. L. C. recondi- 
tioning Graded area maps. 

The Waverly Area 8 

Reasons for selection Scope of survey Coverage Plat and 
population Depreciation Environs Land tenure. 

Social Status 14 

Population, income, occupation Health Population density- 
Churches and schools Colleges and hospitals Neighborhood 
organizations Relief Parks and playgrounds Streets and alleys 
Traffic circulation Parking Gas, water, electricity, and sewers 
Street lighting Fire protection Planting and landscaping 
Transportation Commercial. 

Economic Status 20 

Tax rate Assessed value Tax delinquence F. H. A. area grad- 
ing Mortgage status Foreclosures H. 0. L. C. holdings in 
Waverly Appraised value Vacancies Rent scale For sale and 
for rent Comparative levels Market New construction. 

Structural Status 26 

Neighborhood development Gradual coordination Land use 
Residential structures Exterior material Commercial structures. 

Structural Condition , 31 

Definition Infiltration One-family, detached and semi-detached 
homes Row houses Two-family, two-story houses Multiple fam- 
ily structures Placement. 



Pace 



Structural Rehabilitation. 



Detached and semi-detached houses Profit Detailed studies 
Examples Row houses Prompt rehabilitation necessary Divi- 
sional study H. O. L. C. policy Interior playgrounds. 

Zoning 

Ordinance Zoning to control use-height and population density- 
Zoning to control commercial use Zoning adjustments. 

Street Adjustments 

Irregular street pattern Recommended changes Cost Pay- 
ment Area occupied Detailed description, justification, and esti- 
mate Vcnable Avenue Frisby Street. 



Rehabilitation Financing. 



Conclusions 

Neighborhood decline through movement toward the urban rim 
Neighborhood decline through industrial decentralization Con- 
servation through cooperation Institutional responsibility Ideal 
test conditions Dominant factors Comparison with R. P. I. sur- 
vey findings Infection Downward trend obscured Cross-cur- 
rents Survey influence Zoning adjustment Overzoning in Wav- 
erly Street pattern adjustment The Master Plan Community 
organization Mobilized neighborhood effort Waverly Conserva- 
tion League Municipal conservation department Beneficial re- 
strictions Neighborhood conservation financing. 



Summary . 



APPENDIX 
A. Waverly District A 

Divisional study District subdivision Division 6 omitted -Exte- 
rior materials. 

Taxes. Assessed value Tax delinquence Tax sales Tax delin- 
quence, encumbrances, repairs, and age Tax delinquence and 
ground ownership. 

Reconditioning. Structural condition Reproduction value Distri- 
bution of repair cost Reconditioned value Appraised and 
assessed values. 

Occupancy. Owners and tenants Duration of ownership Dura- 
tion of tenancy Owner-tenant mobility Occupancy and struc- 
tural age Room ratios Occupancy and mortgage status For 
sale and rent Title transfers Multiple sales Latest sale 
Sales frequency and maintenance Sales frequency and mortgage 
status Sales frequency and age. 

Encumbrances. Mortgage status Mortgage holders Mortgage 
status and appraised value Mortgage status and recondition- 
ingMortgage status and age Foreclosures. 



41 



46 



69 



VI 



Psge 

B. Financing Sources 84 

First-mortgage investors F. H. A. Title II Local building and loan 
associations F. H. A. Title I Seven loan sources Federal saving 
and loan associations State-chartered associations Commercial 
banks Personal loan banks Commercial credit discount com- 
panies Insurance companies Manufacturers' finance units 
Section 207 of the National Housing Act. 

C. Proposed Legislation 87 

Neighborhood Improvement Act Urban Redevelopment Corpora- 
tions Act. 

D. Street Adjustments 90 

Street openings Paving and widening Conversion Closing. 



VII 



Foreword 



Too Jong have our city slums been regarded as an 
inescapable and permanent urban liability. In quite 
recent years, however, determined efforts have been 
made to reduce the terrific wastage which they cause. 
With governmental cooperation, remedial treatment 
is now being applied to many of them. But since that 
treatment requires the total demolition of great urban 
areas and the construction of new housing for the vast 
population thus displaced, its application will neces- 
sarily be slow and costly. 

Meanwhile, the problem of neighborhood blight 
that slow process which eventually produces the slum, 
either through the encroachment of outside substandard 
areas or the development of internal structural and 
social decay has largely been ignored. Blight starts 
with the neglect of a single property and the occupance 
of that property by a family which has a living standard 
below that of the balance of the community. Grad- 
ually it begins to spread; slowly it widens and deepens; 
finally, from this single point of infection, it produces 
a full-blown slum. Each year community corrosion 
thus takes a terrific national toll in investment and 
human values, but the general attitude toward it 
perhaps because of its almost imperceptible advance 
has always been one of patient acquiescence in a 
natural but impersonal phenomenon, which cannot be 
controlled but need not be feared. 

During the course of its vast operations, the Federal 
Home Loan Bank Board has gathered a large volume 
of data on the trend of residential neighborhoods in 
some 230 cities in the United States and has incorpo- 
rated this information in detailed, confidential "secur- 
ity area maps." Based on exhaustive studies, and 
supplemented by local investigation, they clearly indi- 
cate the alarming extent to which neighborhood decay 
has affected America's cities. Could they examine 
these maps, hundreds of thousands of home owners, 
who today believe that their properties are safe from 
that malady which has destroyed the savings of so 
many other thousands in the past, would be dismayed 
to realize that potential blight and ultimate loss even 
now overhang their dwellings. 

The combined value of the residential real estate in 
which the Federal Home Loan Bank Board through 
its agencies and their member institutions is directly 
interested, aggregates some seven billion dollars. Be- 
cause this vast sum represents the savings of millions 
of thrifty Americans and because of the potential threat 



to the Nation's housing standards, the Board is deeply 
concerned with the terrific eventual losses which will 
be occasioned by neighborhood blight, decay, and final 
slum development, if that insidious process is not halted. 
It has, therefore, long sought a simple and practical 
preventive program by means of which vigilant groups 
of home owners can reverse community disintegration 
before it attains a definitely destructive momentum. 

The following pages describe a test conservation 
program undertaken for this purpose in the Waverly 
area of Baltimore, Md. Waverly is not a hopelessly 
depressed area. On the contrary, it is essentially 
sound structurally, economically, and socially. It is 
worth preserving and it can be preserved. That is why 
it was chosen for this test. In it, the Baltimore Hous- 
ing Authority acted as official sponsor; the Works Prog- 
ress Administration conducted a survey of conditions 
and needs ; the United States Housing Authority and the 
Home Owners' Loan Corporation contributed the nec- 
essary technical services; and local municipal agencies 
and civic leaders cooperated in each step of the project. 

In no way intended as a treatise on the urban slum, 
the study which follows touches on that subject only to 
show the general process of structural and social decay 
which must be controlled if future slum development is 
to be halted. It then proceeds to a detailed study of 
the Waverly district from the time of its settlement to 
the present day its growth, its values, the incipient 
blight which threatens it and the problems that arise 
from that threat; and, finally, it lays down a pattern by 
which home owners in Waverly and elsewhere through- 
out the country may safeguard residential values of 
the type which in years past, through neglect and de- 
cay, have vanished in such gigantic volume. 

The initial work has been done and a prescription 
which will preserve Waverly as an urban asset has been 
developed. Its future now depends on the action of 
its residents. If they fail promptly to apply the pro- 
posed remedy, disintegration, gradual though it may 
be, is inevitable. If they make energetic and continu- 
ous use of the simple formula now made available to 
them, they will halt the danger which menaces their 
community and will long conserve it as a stable and 
desirable home neighborhood. 

The survey and analysis of similar small home areas 
elsewhere will not always produce data and conclusions 
identical with those developed in this study. The de- 
tails of each case and the exact nature of the mechanical, 



VIII 



promotional, and legal measures which are most appro- 
priate to its treatment, will necessarily vary with every 
community. But the major, underlying problem the 
cause and practical treatment of neighborhood disin- 
tegration will be found much the same everywhere. 
Believing that the operating standards, administra- 
tive methods, and financing machinery which were 
evolved in connection with the Waverly Test Pro- 



gram and much of the data and conclusions which 
stem from it can be utilized beyond the immediate 
area in which they originated, the Federal Home Loan 
Bank Board offers this book not only as a record of the 
survey and planning phase of the Baltimore project 
but also for the inspiration and guidance of other urban 
communities and agencies which are seeking an effec- 
tive preventive remedy for their slum problems. 



IX 







' 







AIR VIEW 
of the 

WAVERLY AREA 
Baltimore, Md. 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 



The Problem of Urban Decay 



GROWTH 

In the year 1800, a total of 210,873 persons or 4 per- 
cent of tho Nation's entire population dwelt in the six 
American cities which then had a population of 8,000 
or more. By 1920, there were 46,304,640 people, or 44 
percent of the total enumerated in the census of that 
year, living in the 924 American urban centers having a 
population greater than 8,000. This remarkable in- 
crease in the number of cities and the constantly 
accelerated rate of their population growth not only 
wrought many significant changes in the mode of life, 
the problems and the aims of those who dwelt within 
them, but also made exceedingly difficult the production 
of any orderly plan for the extension of their physical 
and social patterns. 

Urban development, rapidly expanding to meet the 
equally rapidly expanding requirements of our national 
economy, was often forced. Exuberant vitality 
crowded it forward under tremendous pressure. Be- 
cause "America was ever marching onward," the con- 
servation of physical resources, already created, was 
frequently ignored or wholly forgotten in the haste to 
develop new wealth and novel amenities of life. Cheap 
and abundant building sites were available everywhere. 
Building materials and equipment were improved at 
an astonishing rate. As wealth increased, standards 
of domestic economy changed rapidly. Swifter and 
more comfortable forms of urban and interurban 
transportation and communication were developed. 
All of these factors invited an increasing migration to 
tho fringe of the urban settlement and, as advancing 
age and comparative obsolescence began to set their 
mark on formerly desirable neighborhoods, they were 
quickly and lightly abandoned to those economically 
less able to command aU that is most desirable in the 
location and quality of their homes. 

Thus began the decline which so frequently produced 
urban blight for while America was growing, it was 
also wasting away. 

INCREASE RETARDED 

More recently another factor the accelerating de- 
cline in the rate of national population increase has 



tended to expedite the development of depressed urban 
areas. 

Somewhat vain, perhaps, over the remarkable growth 
of its total population, the Nation has failed to realize 
that the rate of its increase has been progressively 
slackening during the past half century. For each 
decade before 1860, the United States had an average 
population growth of approximately 30 percent. This 
fell to 21 percent for the 10-year period ending in 1900 
and declined to 15 percent for the 1920 decade. When 
the 1940 census is completed, it is anticipated that an 
increase not exceeding 8 percent over 1930 will be shown. 

The national birth rate, which was 37 per 1,000 in 
1875, had fallen to 16.9 by 1935. The larger cities of the 
country are now reproducing not in excess of 70 percent 
of their replacement needs and if they were, henceforth, 
to depend solely on new births for these replacements, 
their combined populations, a few generations hence, 
would stand far below the present level. Heretofore, 
the effect of a sharply decreased urban birth rate has 
been, to a great extent, offset by a falling death rate, 
by migration from the farm and by immigration from 
abroad. The depression and Federal legislation, how- 
ever, largely dried up both of the two last-named 
sources and indeed, for a little while, actually reversed 
the farm-to-city movement. 

For the first time in our national history, net city 
and suburban population is not increasing rapidly and 
such growth as exists is at the urban rim and not at its 
center. This fact further accentuates the problems 
incident to neighborhood decay and will serve to 
increase the emphasis which any prudent housing 
program will place on the maximum possible conser- 
vation of those resources which the Nation already 
possesses. 

COST OF URBAN BLIGHT 

The capital loss occasioned by community disinte- 
gration is, of course, apparent to the most casual 
observer. Once decay sets in, property values gradu- 
ally decline until, finally, they reflect only such income 
as "man's inhumanity toward man" can currently 
extract through postponed repair, overcrowding, and 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



illegitimate occupancy. The shrinkage in investment 
values does not, however, represent the entire loss 
incident to neighborhood disintegration. The per 
capita cost of necessary municipal services, such as fire 
and police protection, sewers, water supply, street 
lighting and pavement the cost of educational, health 
and hospital service and the cost of delinquency, 
immorality, and crime, is always proportionately greater 
in the slums than it is in the balance of a given urban 
area. 

The annual expense for fire protection in Cleveland 
to cite a single example from among the many availa- 
ble is $17.50 per capita in the slums and $2.50 in other 
parts of the city; the cost of tuberculosis control is $3 
for each slum dweller and $1 for residents elsewhere; 
and the per capita expenditure for police protection in 
the slums is $12 as compared with $4 for the balance 
of Cleveland. 

Everywhere, expenditures for slum maintenance are 
out of all proportion to the contribution of these 
deteriorated urban areas to the general support of city 
government and they are therefore causing an enormous 
net loss of public revenue throughout the country. 

MUNICIPAL SERVICES 

The heavy cost of neighborhood blight, in the form 
of shrinking taxes on the one hand, and increased 
expenditures on the other, is the channel through which 
a considerable portion of the income of every city in 
the United States, over 50 years old, is being drained 
away. Annual tax collections in a Boston area recently 
amounted to $99,000, against an estimated cost of 
$1,400,000 for fire, police, health, and other services. 
A square mile in Chicago, during a recent 3-year period, 



returned $586,000 in taxes, while the city's outlay for 
public services was estimated at $3,200,000. 

In like manner, blight largely increases the unpro- 
ductive maintenance and operating cost of privately 
owned utilities and consequently swells the cost of 
these services to the consumer at large. 

DISEASE 

The direct and indirect cost of illness in the Unitec 
States is tremendous, and by far the larger share of 
this wastage originates in our city slums. 

Infant mortality is, on the average, 2% times higher 
in blighted areas than in other urban districts. When- 
ever an epidemic threatens, it is the slum sections 
which first engage the attention of health authorities. 
All communicable diseases such as measles, scarlet fever, 
infantile paralysis, and the venereal diseases, arc largely 
concentrated in these districts and now constitute the 
chief problem of organized municipal health control. 

CRIME 

Blighted urban neighborhoods provide the breeding 
ground for dependence, degradation, and crime. In- 
variably, that comparatively small part of the city's 
population which lives within these districts produces 
much the largest percentage of juvenile delinquent and 
adult criminal convictions. In New York City, 33 
percent of all felonious crimes come from that 10 
percent of the population which is located in depreciated 
neighborhoods. In Chicago, 25 percent of all juvenile 
delinquency originates in 6 percent of that city's area 
and among 1 1 percent of its population. In Cleveland, 
47 percent of all delinquencies come from 26 percent of 
its population. 



I 



WAVERLYA STUDY IN 



Decay or Preservation 



LIFE CYCLE 

Integration and disintegration is a never ending 
cycle that is common alike to animate and to inani- 
mate matter. In this respect, the dwellings which 
compose an urban residential community constitute a 
highly complex structural organism that resembles the 
human body in many ways. The constant cycle of 
birth, life, and death is inevitable in both, but while 
we recognize that proper preventive and curative treat- 
ment will prolong the usefulness and postpone the 
final decay of animate life, we have always considered 
the constantly accelerating disintegration of the urban 
neighborhood to be an inescapable process which more 
or less superficial repair, at increasing intervals, might 
momentarily delay but could not long halt. And so 
we have permitted our urban areas to decline, almost 
unchecked, and eventually to become serious social 
and economic liabilities both to the cities directly con- 
cerned and to the Nation as a whole. 

In its life cycle, the residential area begins with the 
need of a growing city for additional homes and the 
consequent development of a new urban or suburban 
community reflecting all that is then modern in con- 
struction, sanitation, and mechanical equipment. It 
then passes through a considerable and often compara- 
tively long period of normal use, marked by reasonable 
maintenance. It next begins to suffer from advancing 
age, accelerating obsolescence, and structural neglect. 
As the process of decay continues, investment and rent 
values gradually fall; since these values no longer 
justify proper maintenance, repairs are progressively 
scaled down or are wholly neglected; one by one indi- 
vidual residential units and presently the district as 
a whole show marked evidence of important deteri- 
oration. And finally the district emerges as a slum 
area, wherein depreciated property values reflect a 
tremendous investment loss and physical structures 
have become unfit for decent human habitation, con- 
tributing directly and progressively to the degradation 
of those unfortunates whose lack of means compel 
them to live within boundaries where squalor, ignorance, 
dependence, disease, corruption, and crime are born, 
flourish, and reach full maturity. 



Age is not alone responsible for this deplorable last 
chapter, however. 

NEIGHBORHOOD DECLINE 

For both sentimental and economic reasons, the 
average American family is reluctant to change its 
place of residence and, despite the counter attraction 
of newer settlements on the urban fringe and the com- 
parative convenience and mobility of apartment life, 
longest maintains its home where community standards 
longest remain unimpaired. But once an older neigh- 
borhood commences actively to decline socially and 
economically, home owners with growing incomes and 
increasing families gradually surrender it to those who 
must live on a relatively lower economic scale. The 
number of old housing units throughout the country 
which each year thus cross the line into the substandard 
class, greatly exceeds the number of new units con- 
structed during the same period, until now, as disclosed 
by a recent national survey, one-sixth of the urban 
dwelling units in the United States have reached that 
condition of aggravated obsolescence which renders 
them unfit for decent habitation. 

A NATIONAL OBLIGATION 

Provision for the proper housing of the whole Ameri- 
can people is now an accepted national social obligation. 
Numerous remedies for the evil of urban blight have 
been suggested and some of them have been applied 
in comparatively small doses. In a few instances, 
wealthy individuals or endowed foundations have built 
and successfully operated relatively low rental "garden 
apartment" groups for low income families. An occa- 
sional socially minded employer has provided adequate, 
sanitary, and sometimes attractive "model homes" for 
his workers on a moderate rental scale. A small 
number of limited dividend corporations have offered 
modern facilities at comparatively low rent. In recent 
years many municipalities, acting under their police 
powers, have demolished unsanitary and dangerous 
buildings, sometimes over considerable areas, but usu- 
ally with emphasis on structural decadence rather than 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



on the morally and physically unhealthy conditions 
created by neighborhood deterioration and usually, 
also, with little or no effort to rehouse the families 
thus displaced. State legislation, providing for the 
creation of neighborhood improvement and redevel- 
opment units i in established communities, is being 
sought. 

And, finally, the Government has recently embarked 
upon a national housing program which embraces 
(1) Federal assistance primarily for the middle income 
group, through the insurance of mortgages which will 
finance new private construction in select residential 
areas, and (2) slum clearance and subsidized building 
for low income families. 

DEMOLITION, A SURGICAL OPERATION 

Whether our slum areas, after they have been cleared, 
are to be used as sites for new housing development or 
for industries, warehouses, parks, playgrounds, or cen- 
trally located airplane landing fields, or are just to be 
left vacant, is a question which must be determined by 
the functional fitness of each such district. 

In any case, five facts are evident to even the casual 
student of urban problems: 

(a) A substantial portion of our urban population dwells in 
inadequate and substandard buildings and in neighborhoods that 
are destructive of wholesome family life, are injurious to health 
and are conducive to delinquency and crime. 

(6) Neither public nor private enterprise has as yet found a 
way to produce a sufficient and reasonably immediate supply of 
decent housing for this lower income group. 

(c) Whatever the eventual remedy for the malady of fully 
developed urban decay, the cure will necessarily be exceedingly 
slow, involving, first, the equivalent of a costly major surgical 
operation to remove these diseased areas from the body of our 
urban communities and, second, a tremendous rebuilding pro- 
gram requiring the expenditure of many billions of dollars. 

(<J) The Government's program, which has heretofore con- 
cerned itself largely with the stimulation of new construction, is 
still incomplete, inasmuch as it has left the preservation of 
existing standard housing virtually untouched. 

(e) A vast number of older structures throughout the country 
still provide all of the decencies and some of the luxuries of life, 
but, at their physical, economic, and social foundations, the 
sinister and destructive forces of age, obsolescence, and decay 
are continuously at work. 

Because property owners in our older communities 
have been but dimly aware that neighborhood decay 
can be definitely arrested and even reversed and be- 
cause, also, the funds and technical advice required to 
produce a working pattern for that purpose have not 
been readily available to them, the history of our 
American cities shows little or no effective effort to 
delay, in its intermediate period, what has too gener- 
ally been considered the inevitable cycle of urban 
birth, life, and death. Had this not been true, at least 

' For text of the proposed "Neighborhood Improvement Act," and analysis of 
the N. Y. "Urban Hedevelopment Corporations Act," see Appendix C. 



a large number of the 3,000,000 urban dwellings whicl 
a committee of the United States Senate recently classi- 
fied as unfit for decent human habitation, would not 
now be in a condition that menaces the social and phys- 
ical well-being of their tenants and necessitates an 
expenditure for municipal services out of all proportion 
to their tax contributions. 

With the tremendous losses which this wastage en- 
tails with the alternatives for the clearance and recon- 
struction of the core of so many of our cities through 
private building enterprise or Government loans and 
subsidies and with the relative social and economic 
consequences, a generation or two hence, of the adop- 
tion of one or more of them this discussion is con- 
cerned only insofar as it is thus provided with an 
opportunity to emphasize the fact that the costly major 
surgical operation which must presently be performed 
on so many urban communities could frequently have 
been avoided by the earlier application of a compara- 
tively inexpensive preventive remedy. 

CONSERVATION, A PREVENTIVE REMEDY 

The opportunity for sober reflection which was 
afforded by the depression, has helped make it clear 
that in more than a geographical sense are our old 
frontiers gone. No longer will growth be measured in 
terms of a restless people, pushing ever westward and 
scoring striking increases in population and material 
wealth. Population growth is slowing down; the influx 
of foreign born emigrants has been sharply restricted; 
the exuberant period of territorial and economic ex- 
pansion is behind us. An increasing effort must now 
be made to consolidate our material and social gains 
and to conserve our economic and human resources, 
and stronger accent must be placed on the develop- 
ment of maximum benefits from what we already 
possess. 

Near the top of the list of existing values stand our 
older established so called "small home" urban neigh- 
borhoods which, though still sound, worthy of preser- 
vation and capable of many years of normal use if 
properly maintained, are nevertheless beginning to 
indicate the presence of the poisonous seed of blight 
and decay. 

NOT A CURE-ALL 

It is a fact now slowly being recognized by housing 
economists that just as the application of curative 
remedies will preserve the vigor and delay the eventual 
death of the human body, so can definite preventive 
measures be taken, in the case of the urban community, 
measurably to extend its period of usefulness and long 
postpone its final disintegration. These remedies will 
not serve to rejuvenate or perpetuate a district whose 
physical structures and equipment are in so advanced 



WAVERLYA STUDY IN 



a stage of deterioration as to be unfit for normal use. 
Usually, the only cure for an area of that type is com- 
plete demolition and subsequent replanning. 2 The 
proposed preventive treatment is designed, rather, for 
those older neighborhoods which have not yet ap- 
proached slum status but in which the sinister effects 
of age and obsolescence are beginning to gain so dis- 
ruptive a momentum that unless their present chart 
line is definitely improved they will eventually be 
carried below the limit of normal usefulness and beyond 
rescue, by either individual or collective effort. 

The natural tendency of these neighborhoods to de- 
cline in attractiveness and economic value cannot be 
wholly and forever checked and corrected, but trends 
can long be controlled and serious general disintegra- 
tion be almost indefinitely postponed. Rarely does 
such a residential district develop into a slum because 
of factors beyond the control of those who live in it. 
Decay is usually due to the fatalistic attitude of the 
whole body of property owners themselves. It begins 
with one house and will halt if and when all home 
owners concerned, each for his own best interest, deter- 
mine that blight shall extend no farther. 

Obviously, when a residential area is needed for com- 
mercial purposes, it must give way. That is inevitable 
and is not a matter for concern, since property owners 
will be fully recompensed as the area develops into a 
business district. But, except in those sections where 
early transition to commercial use is clearly indicated, 
coordinated and properly directed neighborhood action 
will practically always serve long to postpone serious 
decline and, by so doing, will preserve the integrity of 
family life, will maintain the community's character 

' Hut notable exceptions are furnished by the recent rejuvenation of derelict stmc- 

!ui:i! I'litui^ in 1'hikidelpliia and Indianapolis. 



and standards, will save much that is valuable in its 
economic resources, and will long continue it as a civic 
asset. 

LEADERSHIP AND COOPERATION 

For maximum and assured success, action must be 
undertaken as a united community enterprise, based on 
a broad, carefully planned and therefore relatively 
costly pattern, which embraces the district as a whole 
and each dwelling in it. If it is to be genuinely effec- 
tive, this pattern must be developed under experienced 
technical guidance; must include detailed recommen- 
dations for the repair, modernization, and embellish- 
ment, by the owners, of all residential units which need 
rehabilitation or architectural revision; must directly 
or indirectly provide a financing medium, easily and 
cheaply available to those who cannot themselves sup- 
ply the funds necessary to defray the cost of such re- 
pair and reconstruction; must deal with community 
problems such as the opening and closing of streets, 
the establishment of recreational areas, and the volun- 
tary acceptance, by property owners, of those use and 
ownership restrictions, not related to zoning and not 
usually covered by ordinance, which have so frequently 
been found to constitute actual benefits to the individual 
owner and his neighborhood; must devise barriers 
against infiltration by undesirable residents and en- 
croachment and infection by contiguous substandard 
districts; must provide for traffic routing and regula- 
tion; must consider necessary extensions of school 
equipment and the adequacy of public utility and trans- 
portation facilities; must plan landscaping for public 
and private spaces; and finally, in both its initial and 
its subsequent stages, must be administered under 
sympathetic and continuously energetic leadership. 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



Federal Home Loan Bank Board 



ITS INTEREST 

The Federal Home Loan Bank Board is definitely 
concerned with the stabilization of neighborhood values 
and the prevention of neighborhood blight, not only 
because of the social implications involved but also 
because its various agencies have guaranteed or invested 
in billions of dollars of mortgages, real estate, and sav- 
ings and loan shares, which would be endangered were 
the stability of the security which now protects them to 
be seriously impaired. 

SAVINGS AND LOAN INSTITUTIONS 

The Federal Home Loan Bank System, through 
twelve regional banks, provides a central credit reservoir 
for nearly 4,000 member thrift and home-financing 
institutions, with assets of about $4,700,000,000, 
largely invested in mortgages on small homes in virtu- 
ally every community of any size in the United States. 
At least a portion of this property, it may safely be 
assumed, lies in that type of potentially declining area 
with which this report is concerned. In addition, the 
Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation has 
insured the investment shares of 2,500,000 investors in 
2,200 of these member institutions and constantly is 
extending its protection to others. 

HOME OWNERS' LOAN CORPORATION 

Another agency, the Home Owners' Loan Corpora- 
tion, refinanced more than a million distressed home 
owners to the extent of more than $3,000,000,000 during 
the depression holding, at the close of its lending 
period in 1936, mortgages aggregating $3,093,450,641, 
secured by approximately one-tenth of the nonfarm, 
owner-occupied residences in the United States. It still 
holds most of these mortgages, although in the course of 
their liquidation it has reluctantly been forced to acquire 
title to some 150,000 residential units, situated in prac- 
tically every city in the country. Since these loans in 
all instances represented the refinancing of distressed 
mortgage holders, it follows that a considerable propor- 
tion of the real estate which secures them and a large 



part of that which has been acquired in the process of 
their liquidation lies in older areas which are in poten- 
tial danger of blight infection. 

VALUE OF F. H. L. B. B. SECURITY 






The combined value of the residential property with 
which the Federal Home Loan Bank Board thus is and 
for many years will be directly concerned, now aggre- 
gates some 7 billions of dollars. Any considerable- 
hazard to the continued stability of this security would 
seriously endanger the financial safety of its agencies. 
The Board thus has a tremendous stake in the whole 
fabric of American residential values and a compelling 
and very practical concern in the stabilization of areas 
everywhere which are beginning to show evidence of 
depreciation, tending eventually to carry them below 
the line of normal use. It therefore considers it sound 
business policy to assist in any urban conservation pro- 
gram, in which there is a reasonable opportunity to pre- 
serve potentially depressed areas as genuine home 
neighborhoods offering social and physical environment 
that is conducive to healthy home life and safe 
investment. 

H. O. L. C. RECONDITIONING 

The Bank Board, through the Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation, has already made a major contribution 
to the rehabilitation of considerable areas. Because 
the owners of many of the properties which it accepted 
as security for mortgage loans had been compelled to 
postpone repairs during the previous depressed years, 
the Corporation eventually found it desirable to recon- 
dition more than one-half of these homes. During the 
first 5-year period of its existence, it spent or directed 
the expenditure of approximately $120,000,000 for the 
repair of more than 640,000 properties. In the course 
of this tremendous rehabilitation operation, it learned 
that the utilitarian and investment value of a depreci- 
ated residential structure, in a reasonably good neigh- 
borhood, can usually be restored at a cost somewhat less 
than the amount thereby added to the value of the 
subject property. It found, also, that in making this 



WAVERLYA STUDY IN 



sound investment for itself, it frequently benefited 
surrounding property, both by directly increasing values 
and by inspiring neighboring owners to improve the 
condition of their homes. But it also discovered that 
the individual effort of a single property owner, even 
of so considerable a one as itself, could not alone pre- 
serve a district from ultimate destruction, once disinte- 
gration and decay had really begun their menacing 
march. Thus limited by neighborhood conditions and 
the necessity for avoiding over-improvement, it was 
unable fully to restore many homes which otherwise 
it would have completely reconditioned. 

GRADED AREA MAPS 

The Home Owners' Loan Corporation, after a careful 
and exhaustive field study of the varied community 
influences involved, has prepared maps which grade 
the residential neighborhoods of more than 230 large 



cities. The purpose of these maps was to study the 
factors which govern the desirability of the security 
underlying long term residential mortgages. At the 
same time they clearly show the districts in which 
blight is destroying neighborhood values. The maps 
are of a confidential nature and cannot be made public 
but could hundreds of thousands of home owners, 
who today believe that their properties are safe from 
that urban disease which has gradually destroyed the 
savings of so many other thousands, examine these 
maps, they would be dismayed to realize that the ulti- 
mate loss of their own equities is inevitable, unless 
prompt, concerted action to save them is undertaken. 
It was with the hope of lightening the heavy toll 
which neighborhood blight has taken of our American 
cities in the past, that the Federal Home Loan Bank 
Board authorized participation in the Test Conserva- 
tion Program described in this report. 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



The Waverly Area of Baltimore, Md. 



REASONS FOR SELECTION 

Marked depreciation rests heavily upon a large part 
of the territory which lies within the old limits of the 
city of Baltimore. The local Housing Authority is here 
undertaking the reclamation of five sizeable slum 
districts. But considerable as is their area, they repre- 
sent only a fraction of the depreciated, often dilapi- 
dated, neighborhoods of the old city, which are gradually 
but progressively extending their noxious influence 
beyond their own borders in all directions. 

A joint committee on housing, assembled by the 
Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works 
and cooperating with various city departments, includ- 
ing health, police, water, sewer, plans and surveys, 
building engineering, etc., and with the Juvenile Court, 
the Emergency Relief Commission, the Family Wel- 
fare Association, the Catholic Charities, the Urban 
League, the Criminal Justice Commission, and the 
Department of Sociology of Goucher College, in 1933 
completed a survey of the city, in which appears the 
following comment: 

The Committee wishes to state in the most emphatic manner 
that Baltimore contains a ring of blighted residential tracts 
of the most serious importance and size. The center of the 
city is almost completely girdled with a belt of property, which, 
unless rehabilitated, will remain an increasingly serious menace 
to all properties inside and outside of this ring. 

The area selected for the Waverly Conservation 
Program later described, lies about 2/ miles north of 
Baltimore's central business district. It is beyond the 
old city limits and- while it includes some badly depre- 
ciated spots it can in no way be classified as substan- 
dard at this time. It was considered an appropriate 
subject for a test project (1) because its proximity to 
the city of Washington provided a convenient labora- 
tory location for those governmental agencies which 
are most directly concerned at this time with the 
problems of urban decay; (2) because the selected 
district almost entirely is comprised of moderate-sized, 
single-family homes that, in room and total cubage, 
are the equivalent of those for which there is a present- 
day market; (3) because, although the Area contains 
numerous well-maintained dwellings, definite indica- 



tions of a downward trend can be observed in many 
scattered blocks within its borders; (4) because just 
bej'ond its southern boundary is a fully developed 
slum which continuously menaces its social and eco- 
nomic integrity; and (5) because, eventually, its pres- 
ent obscure but definite decline, reflecting increasing age 
and the corrosive influence of the substandard sections 
to the south of it, will, if unchecked, adversely affect 
the equities of all home owners within the Area and the 
security of all interested loaning agencies; will impair 
property values in the choice residential sections on 
three sides of it; and will impose a considerably in- 
creased tax burden on the entire city of Baltimore. 

Drawing No. 1 shows the location of the test Area 
in relation to the city's slum and substandard districts 
and its business center. 



SCOPE OF SURVEY ANALYSIS PLANNING 

The survey and planning stage of the Test Conser- 
vation Project included: 

1. Afield survey, made during the period March 15 
to August 15, 1939, by Works Progress Administration 
enumerators and social investigators, of each residen- 
tial and commercial structure in the Area, for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining its physical condition supple- 
mented, so far as possible, by a personal interview with 
an occupant of each dwelling, for the purpose of learn- 
ing his family's social and economic status. The sur- 
vey schedule contained 132 main items, including type, 
age, and condition of structure; foundation, outside 
wall and roof material; condition of exterior; number of 
stories and number of rooms; condition and architec- 
tural arrangement of interior; utilities and sanitary 
equipment; heating, light, and refrigeration; necessary 
repair, remodeling and embellishment; number in occu- 
pant's family; number of other persons and families 
domiciled in the unit; occupation and income of the 
occupant; rentals, vacancies, and duration of occu- 
pancy; and other items noted in the descriptive text 
which follows. 

2. At least two photographs of each structure, dis- 
closing its front and rear exterior architectural features. 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 



I 



SI_NG AUTHORITV OF CIT'Y QF BflLT IMORE ^. 




THE WAVERLY AREA 

Baltimore/ Maryland 

Surrounding Territory Slum Districts 



Drawing No. 1 



KEY 

\Vaverly Area 
Slum districts 

O 1- 2- 3-mile radius 

^ City center 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



3. Search of records at the City Hall and Courthouse, 
where data relating to assessments, tax levies, tax 
delinquencies, mortgages, and sales were obtained. 

4. Analysis to determine the causes, implications, 
and remedies for the substandard conditions and tend- 
encies which were uncovered by the examinations 
described above. 

5. Tabulation of the accumulated field data, etc., 
relating to each improved property; determination of 
its physical and economic deficiencies, if any; and the 
development of a tentative scale of rehabilitation for 
each depreciated residential structure, calculated to 
correct any existing substandard conditions thus un- 
covered. This included needed repair and recondition- 
ing, desirable remodeling, architectural treatment, em- 
bellishment and landscaping, an outside estimate of 
costs, and pencil sketches and models where necessary 
to portray recommended changes hi architectural 
treatment all intended to bring the subject dwelling 
to the highest feasible standard consistent with its 
present economic and physical condition, its surround- 
ings, and the common plan for the Area as a whole. 

6. Study of installed utilities and present street and 
alley patterns, park facilities, playground provision, 
land use, block improvement schemes, and zoning ordi- 
nances and in cooperation with the Baltimore city 
solicitor, city engineer, Baltimore Commission on 
City Plan, and interested individuals the mapping of 
practical adjustments of these elements, in accordance 
with modern city planning practice, including improve- 
ments in block development and street pictures. 

7. Examination of the complete field report, photo- 
graphs, statistical data and schedule of proposed 
rehabilitation and architectural treatment relating to 
each property, supplemented by field inspections, for 
the purpose of (a) justifying or modifying the recom- 
mended reconditioning, based on the type, location, 
and physical condition of the structure and on present 
and prospective neighborhood trends and (6) determin- 
ing the present value of the property and such change 
in that value as may be anticipated when the proposed 
structural and community improvements have been 
completed. 

8. Exploration of available sources of financing 
through which home owners who require assistance in 
paying the cost of repairing and rehabilitating their 
properties might borrow the necessary funds. 

9. Production of a final, comprehensive Master Plan 
for the physical, economic, and social conservation of 
the Waverly area, based on the surveys and studies 
described above and on the city's general housing 
program. 

10. Cooperation in the organization of a neighborhood 
association, to which the recommendations for the 
treatment of each property and of the whole Area, as 
finally embodied in the Master Plan, might be entrusted ; 



by which, with energetic and sympathetic local leader- 
ship and unified neighborhood support, the translation 
of these recommendations into the physical improve- 
ment of the Area might be encouraged and carried 
forward; and under which the neighborhood standards 
so established might long be maintained. 



COVERAGE 






Field enumerators and social investigators were 
directed to interview an adult occupant of each family 
unit. In some cases, however, the field representative, 
after repeated call-backs, was unable to contact an 
occupant and in others he was refused desired in- 
formation. In all such cases, the exterior survey 
invariably supplied valuable and pertinent data, in 
addition to those obtained from an examination of 
public records. Therefore, while the maps and tabu- 
lations which follow do not always reflect a com 
plete field survey, the number of properties fully 
reported and the number partially reported, together 
with the related information accumulated from other 
sources, provide ample material for an accurate cross 
section and composite picture of present conditions 
within the Waverly area. 

Such differences as occur in totals, between tables, 
in some instances arise from the enumerator's failure 
to contact all occupants, and in others from the fact 
that occupants sometimes supplied data in certain 
classifications but refused them in others. In general, 
the only important type of information thus withheld, 
however, related to economic status. 

PLAT AND POPULATION 

Long known as the Waverly neighborhood, the area 
chosen for the test program was first opened in 1830. 
It now includes 39 city blocks, covering approximately 
163 acres, lying in an irregular district approximately 
four-fifths of a mile long by one-third of a mile wide, 
extending from Thirty-third Street to Forty-second 
Street and eastward from Greenmount Avenue to 
Ellerslie Avenue and Argonne Drive. It embraces a 
total area of 7,097,541 square feet of which 1,981,009, 
or approximately 28 percent, are allotted to street and 
alley use and 90,600, or a little over 1 percent, to 
playgrounds leaving a net area, usable for struc- 
tural development, of 5,025,932 square feet, or 70 
percent of the total amount of the land in the district. 

There are 1,748 lots hi the Project Area, of which 38 
are vacant and privately owned, 35 are used for relig- 
ious, school, and other public purposes or are held for 
future municipal use, 19 are given over wholly to com- 
mercial purposes, 46 have on them one-story commer- 
cial garages only and 1,610 are improved with residen- 
tial or combined commercial and residential structures. 









10 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 



Table No. 1 
NET USABLE AREA 


Gross area 


Streets-alleys 


Playgrounds 


Net area 


Acres 


Square 
feet 


Square 
feet 


Percent 

of gross 


Square 
feet 


Percent 
of gross 


Square 
feet 


Percent 
of gross 


163.1 


7, 097, 641 


1,981,009 


27.9 


90,600 


1.3 


5, 025, 932 


70.8 



Waverly thus includes 1,629 :buildings, 98.8 'percent 
of which are used for residential purposes. 

Occupied by a wholly white population of moderate 
means and substantial character, predominantly Amer- 
ican-born, which in general gives definite evidence of 
social and civic pride, the Area has a population of 
approximately 7,000 persons. 

DEPRECIATION 

The age of some of the structures in the Area exceeds 
50 years; some are comparatively modern, and, at the 
date of this report, a few in the northeast section were 
under construction. Though the great majority of 
these dwellings are in an excellent state of general re- 
pair, and none is in a condition of advanced decay, ap- 
proximately 100 of them need more or less extensive 
reconditioning and remodeling, to counteract the physi- 
cal and functional depreciation which has taken heavy 
toll of them. Unless reasonably prompt action is 
taken to bring them up to the average of the district, at 
least as to physical condition, they will not only adversely 
affect property values in their immediate neighborhoods 
but will also constitute increasingly dangerous blight- 
infection foci, menacing the entire body of the district. 

Developed slowly, during more than a century, 
Waverly's street pattern and street widths also fre- 
quently constitute a considerable handicap to the Area. 

Drawing No. 2 on the following page shows its 
boundaries and street layout and indicates the lots 
which are structurally improved. 

ENVIRONS 

To the west and northwest of the Project Area is one 
of the finest residential districts in the city ; to the north 
and east are also new, high-class neighborhoods; at its 
southwest corner, across the protective barrier of Green- 
mount Avenue, is a comparatively small, dilapidated 
district which affords an excellent example of that blight 
and corrosion from which it is intended to protect 
Waverly, by means of the conservation program do- 
scribed in this report. 

Three squares north and east of the Area, on Arling- 
ton Avenue, is a well-maintained Negro settlement, 
embracing approximately five city blocks and popu- 
lated largely by members of the teaching staff of nearby 



Morgan College. Surrounding this area is a consider- 
able section of unimproved land, belonging to a group 
of Negro bankers. Control of Morgan College has 
recently been acquired by the State of Maryland and it 
is anticipated that its field of instruction, and therefore 
its staff, will now be considerably enlarged. 

Directly east of the Area is Saint Elizabeth's Home 
for Female Colored Orphans, an institution of consider- 
able size. 

To the south, and definitely threatening the Area 
by its contiguity and by actual infiltration is a fully 
developed, though not congested, slum district. Most 
of the streets in this section arc unpaved; it is badly 
deficient in storm-water sewers, sidewalks, curbs, and 
gutters; occupancy is being gradually relinquished to 
an economically needy and racially mixed residential 
type, which must be subsidized if decent living stand- 
ards are to be restored. Short of eventual clearance 
and reconstruction, there appears to be no prospect of 
reversal in the trend of this neighborhood. 

Usually, a slum may be roughly divided into zones 
which exhibit varying degrees of physical and social 
deterioration, with the worst area at the core and with 
progressively better housing developing outward, toward 
the rim, where exists an indeterminate line between the 
slum proper and the depressed but not blighted areas 
which adjoin it. In the case of the substandard district 
south of Waverly, however, transition is abrupt. At 
one point, the two virtually adjoin, being separated only 
by a wedge-shaped tract, improved with modern homes 
in an excellent state of repair, narrow at the west and 
continuously widening toward the east. The slum's 
pressure to cross this sharply defined barrier is steady 
and definite and has been successfully resisted hitherto 
only by means of the high neighborhood standards 
which have been maintained within this triangular 
section. 

The relative areas of white and colored occupancy 
are shown in drawing No. 4 on page 17. 

LAND TENURE 

Peculiar to Baltimore and its immediate vicinity 
but largely unknown elsewhere is a system of resi- 
dential land tenure, usually referred to as "ground rent," 
which has exerted a considerable influence on the form 
of many of the summary charts which follow. As 
the result of this system, over 75 percent of the city's 
residences have been built on sites which are not owned 
by the owner of the improvements. 

The history of the ground rent in Maryland goes 
back to the original grant of land to Lord Baltimore 
for a nominal annual consideration. Subsequently, 
smaller tracts were leased on annual rental scales that 
frequently reflected the economic needs of the lessor 
rather than the value of the property. In the case 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



11 




THE WAVERLY AREA 
1939 



Drwin3 No. 2 



12 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 



of some of these early leases, annual payments were 
made in the form of commodities such as flour, corn, 
and tobacco. 

As the urban population of the State grew and trans- 
actions in small residential areas increased, ground 
rents were usually so fixed as to return 6 percent on 
the appraised value of the unimproved property in- 
volved. Thus, if a lot was appraised at $500, a rental 
price of $30 per annum was usually put upon it. The 
typical modern lease which now runs for a period 
of 99 years, with the right of the lessee to renew indef- 
initely provides that, in addition to the amount of 
his rent, payable in cash at the end of each 6 months' 
period, the tenant shall also pay accruing taxes and 
assessments and shall be bound by all covenants that 
run with the land. 

The rights of lessor and lessee have been established 
by precedent and legal enactment over a period of 
several centuries. When the payment of ground rent 
is 6 months or more in arrears, the lessor may take 
possession and collect any income until all accrued 
rents and taxes have been paid. In such case either 
the lessee or a mortgagee may redeem the property 
within the following (i months. When charges are one 
year in arrears, the lessor may, by suit in ejectment, 
acquire fee title to the entire property. Prior to 1884 it 
was legal to create "irredeemable rents." Under these 
contracts, the lessee could acquire absolute ownership 
to the real estate under his home only by purchasing 
it at the owner's price. This class, fortunately, repre- 
sents a minority of cases. Any residential land lease 
made after 1884 and running for a period exceeding 
15 years, is redeemable at the option of the lessee, 
5 years of more after its date, upon 1 month's notice 
to the lessor and the payment to him of an amount 
computed by capitalizing the annual rent at 6 percent. 

Under the ground-rent system, the nominal home 
owner does not own the land upon which his house 
stands and only as long as he pays ground rent, taxes, 
and assessments or purchases the ground fee for cash 
- may he continue to occupy his dwelling. The lessor 
thus not only has the equivalent of a mortgage on all 
structural improvements, but his lien is also senior 
to that of any "first mortgage" recorded after the date 
of the land lease. 



Investors including some insurance companies - 
have long been accustomed to purchase these ground 
rents at prices representing a 6-percent capitalization 
of the amount of the annual rental. During periods 
when the return on prime investments is low, the price 
paid for a well-secured lease is often a 4- to 5-percent 
capitalization of the annual rental. Within recent 
years, however, in neighborhoods which show evidence 
of a definite downward trend, and particularly when 
home owners have been unable to pay ground rent and 
taxes and maintain repairs, leases have sold on an 8- 
and even a 10-percent capitalized basis, notwithstand- 
ing present low general income levels. This revision of 
a formerly settled practice, which gave little or no 
consideration to long-term neighborhood trends, indi- 
cates a comparatively recent but definite recognition 
of the economic implications of impending blight. 

Residential structures selling for less than $10,000 
arc commonly financed by creating a leasehold on the 
land and executing a mortgage on the improvements 
only. 

At least 75 percent of all dwellings in Baltimore are 
held subject to these ground rents and this percentage 
holds true in the Wavcrly area also. 



Table No. 2 
GROUND RENTS 



Ownership 



Fee not held by home owner _ 
Fee held bv home owner... 



Total.. 



Number 



1,329 
419 



1, 748 



Percent 



76 
24 



100 



When the ground-rent system of land tenure pre- 
vails, physical changes in structural improvements, 
arising through obsolescence and decay on the one hand 
and through reconditioning and remodeling on the 
other, are reflected in the value of the improvements 
alone, rather than in that of the improvements and 
land combined. Unless, therefore, the contrary is 
specifically stated, land value is not used as a factor in 
calculating dollar summaries throughout this report. 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



13 



Social Status 



POPULATION INCOM E OCCUPATION 

Slightly more than 7,000 persons, all of whom are 
white, reside within the Waverly area. Its cross section 
closely resembles that of the average small American 
city, populated by substantial families of moderate 
means. 

While complete economic data are not available, 
information obtained by field enumerators and later 
confirmed by local merchants and professional men. 
indicates that 75 percent of these families have weekly 
incomes of $30 or less, 15 percent are in the $30 to $50 
bracket, and 10 percent range between $50 and $100. 

Approximately 7 percent of the employed population 
is engaged in professional work, 59 percent in commer- 
cial pursuits, and 34 percent in industry. 

HEALTH 

That general health conditions in Waverly are satis- 
factory is indicated by table No. 3, which is a tabula- 
tion of mortality statistics for the year 1937, compiled 
from data supplied by the Baltimore Health 
Department. 



Table No. 3 
1937 MORTALITY STATISTICS 


Kind of disease 


Deaths per 100,000 
population 


Waverly 


Baltimore 


Measles _. 


1 3 



75 

125 
63 
325 
100 
1 52 


2.3 
2. 5 
0.7 
9.9 
62.0 
11. 8 
150.2 
97. 
344.2 
99. 2 
75.5 


Whooping cough 


Diphtheria _ 


Influenza.. 


Respiratory tuberculosis 


Syphilis 


Cancer. 


Cerebral hemorrhage 


Diseases of heart 


Pneumonia . . 


Accidents 




i 8-year average. 



POPULATION DENSITY 

Nowhere in Waverly is there any evidence of over- 
crowding, so far as population is concerned. The 
western and southern fringe of the Area is classified as 
C-1% for use-height, permitting a population not exceed- 
ing 80 families per acre. With an area of 24.3 acres, a 
structural count of 445 buildings and a population of 
484 families, this C-1% district is technically available 
for 1,944 families. 

The balance of Waverly is assigned to D-40 use- 
height, which allows a population density not exceeding 
40 families per acre. With 139 acres designated as 
D-40 and a population of approximately 1,184 families, 
this section could legally house 5,560 families. 

Actual and relative population density throughout 
Baltimore and in the Waverly area is shown in drawing 
No. 3. 

CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS 

Within the Area are one Baptist, one Presbyterian, 
and two Methodist churches, a public grade school 
housed in a fine modern building and a parochial grade 
school. Immediately adjoining it arc a Catholic 
Church, two additional grade schools, and a newly con- 
structed high school. Just beyond its eastern border 
lies the new Municipal Stadium, which has a seating 
capacity of 60,000 persons, but is a neighborhood asset 
of very doubtful value. 

COLLEGES AND HOSPITALS 

Three blocks southeast of the Area is the City Col- 
lege of Baltimore; six blocks west of it is the City Art 
Museum and the campus of Johns Hopkins University; 
two blocks to the west is Johnston Memorial Hospital 
for Children; and approximately a mile eastward is 
Sydenham Hospital. 

NEIGHBORHOOD ORGANIZATIONS 

The promotion of the civic and social interests of 
Waverly is the chief object of the following area or- 
ganizations: 

Waverly Improvement Association. 3 
Chestnut Hill Improvement Association. 3 
Greenmount Improvement Association. 3 
' Affiliated with Northeast Improvement Association. 



14 



WAVERLYA STUDY IN 




CITY OF 
BALTIMORE, MARYLAND 

Population Density by Census Districts 



KEY 

Denotes 500 persons 

I Denotes to 250 persons 

Denotes 250 to 500 persons 

E3 Waverly Area 



Drawin3 No. 3 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



15 



York Road Improvement Association. 
Parent-Teacher Association School District No. 51. 
Women's Civic League Group No. 9. 

The . projected activities of the Waverly Conserva- 
tion League, described later in this report, will in no 
way conflict with those of any of the organizations 
named above and ready assurance of their support and 
cooperation, in activating the League's program, has 
been given. 

RELIEF 

The count of relief cases in the Waverly area, as 
supplied by the Baltimore Department of Public Wel- 
fare, is as follows: 



Table No. 4 

RELIEF CASES IN WAVERLY 




Type 


Number 


Aid to dependent children _ . 


10 


Aid to the blind - 


1 


General public assistance 


4 




46 






Total 


61 







Relief is being extended to less than one Area resident 
in 100. When, from the total number on the relief 
rolls, dependent children, blind persons and persons 
entitled to old-age assistance are deducted, the ratio 
receiving general public assistance drops to less than 1 
in 2,000. 

PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS 

There are no public parks within Waverly, but a 
half mile to the east and southeast of it are 2 park 
spaces having a combined area of some 600 acres. Sur- 
rounding the newly completed Municipal Stadium is 
a large open space which has been graded and turfed 
but has not yet been equipped with athletic or play- 
ground apparatus or with playing fields. These park 
facilities are indicated in grey on drawing No. 4. 

Play area provision is wholly inadequate for 
Waverly's needs. The only recreational space which 
can properly be referred to as a public playground 
comprises the block adjacent to Public School No. 
51, bounded by Thirty-fourth and Thirty -fifth Streets 
and Ellerslie Avenue. Except for football goal posts, 
however, no recreational apparatus has been installed 
in this area. During morning hours, the Board of 
Education reserves it for the use of smaller children. 
In the afternoon it is used as a playground for older 
ones. Heretofore, play during the latter period has 
been supervised by the Playground Athletic League, 



16 



an organization sponsored by private interests ar 
supported by private and municipal contributions. 
During the week-ends and the summer holidays, both 
junior and senior children use the grounds jointly. 
No provision has been made for the segregation of boys 
and girls at any time. 

Until recently, the Athletic League has had charge of 
play activities throughout the city of Baltimore. Early 
in the present year, however, the Playground Recrea- 
tional Commission was established by the city and given 
control of all playground activities in Waverly and 
elsewhere throughout Baltimore. Because the city has 
made no appropriation for its needs, this Commission 
is as yet largely inactive. The Atliletic League, on the 
other hand, is reluctant to extend further financial 
support to the city's play activities because the super- 
vision of playgrounds has now been formally trans- 
ferred to the Commission. 

During the past few years, two small adjoining 
unimproved and unequipped lots near Old York Road, 
in the northern section of Waverly, have also been used 
for recreational purposes, under the supervision of the 
Playground Atliletic League. 

In 1926 the so-called Olmstead studies included 
recommendations for two additional recreational 
areas one, a public park to be located immediately 
northeast of Waverly, the other, a playground of con- 
siderable size, to be located near the northern border 
of the district. Favorable action on these recommen- 
dations would provide Waverly with adequate open 
spaces for all types of recreation, but until it is taken, 
playground provision, at least, will remain wholly 
inadequate for the needs of the present population of 
the Area. 

STREETS AND ALLEYS 

With the exception of Wyanoke Avenue, Frisby 
Street, and the northern section of Ellerslie Avenue 
all of which need new gutters, curbs, and surfacing 
streets throughout the Area are adequately paved and 
reasonably well maintained. 

At least from the standpoint of health, proper alley 
pavement and maintenance is probably of greater im- 
portance than is the maintenance of streets. While 
many of Waverly's alleys are paved, well maintained 
and neatly kept, others fall far below permissible urban 
standards. Some, indeed, which are indicated on city 
maps as full alleys, are little more than rough foot 
paths. Much constructive work can be done in this 
department of project activity. 

Additional street openings are needed to promote 
more direct traffic movement and to open considerable 
tracts of land to future building operations. The 
immediate neighborhoods in which they lie would also 
be benefited by the closing of certain streets. 



A STUDY IN 













PUBLIC PARKS AND AREAR OF WHITE AND 
COLORED OCCUPANCY 

Drawing No. 4 



KEY 

E3 Waverly Area 
Colored occupancy 
Public parks 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



17 



TRAFFIC CIRCULATION 

Many of the streets in the Area are too narrow for 
their traffic load and numerous unrelated street patterns 
hamper and confuse traffic flow into, within, and out 
from its borders. 

Greenmount Avenue, which bounds Waverly on the 
west, is the only direct, through, north and south 
vehicular artery available to the Area and to the 



KEY 

Water mains 

Electric conduits 

, Storm sewers 

Sanitary sewers 



New sanitary sewers 

Proposed streets 




EXISTING AND PROPOSED UTILITIES 
IN WAVERLY 



. 5 



populous districts north of it. Because the capacit 
of this 60-foot street is frequently insufficient for its 
load, trolley, truck, and passenger-car traffic moves 
too slowly along it and too frequently jams. 

Old York Road which is indicated on the city's 
maps as a 24-foot street but is, in fact, not of uniform 
width is restricted to north-bound traffic, does not 
provide adequately for even that limited use and will 
not begin to do so until parking is prohibited along its 
entire length. No direct south-bound artery exists 
anywhere within the body of the Area. 

There are 11 street entrances from Greenmount 
Avenue into Waverly, all but 4 of which, however, 
dead-end at Old York Road 1 block cast of Greenmount. 

Only these 4 streets permit direct east and west 
movement across the Area; elsewhere such movement 
is subject to frequent turnings and directional changes, 
due to the various unrelated street patterns which 
exists throughout the district. 

Excessive cost prohibits any general correction of this 
condition, but studies more completely described in a 
subsequent section of this report conducted in connec- 
tion with the survey, have developed important prac- 
tical revisions which, if carried out, will considerably 
ameliorate it. 

PARKING 

Due to the inadequate width of many of Waverly's 
streets, parking has become a definite problem. The 
Area contains no public parking lots but many individual 
and one-story commercial row garages are offered for 
rent. Property owners and tenants, however, largely 
use curb spaces for day- and night-parking purposes. 
On the narrower streets, this both restricts and renders 
dangerous the free movement of two-way traffic. The 
project planning department has recommended that 
various unused tracts of city-owned property, which 
are scattered throughout the district, be conditioned 
for open-air parking, free to nearby owners and tenants, 
and that thereafter the use of curb spaces be restricted 
or prohibited. 

Sufficient car-storage space is not readily available 
for the patrons of the adjacent Municipal Stadium 
which has a seating capacity of approximately 60,000 
persons and on the frequent occasions when it is in 
use they still further complicate the parking problems 
of the southern portion of the Area. 

A tract which is considerably larger than is necessary 
for its purposes, or than can be properly maintained 
within the limitations of its budget, was allotted to the 
Senior High School lying just south of the stadium 
when the latter was built. A portion of this space 
should be made available for stadium parking, thus 
relieving the additional burden which use of the stadium 
frequently imposes on Waverly's streets. 



18 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 



GAS, WATER, ELECTRICITY, AND SEWERS 

The entire Area is supplied with gas, water, and 
electric service and with both storm water and sanitary 
sewers. Provision in these respects is fully adequate 
for the needs of both the present and any anticipated 
future population. Drawing No. 5 shows existing and 
proposed water mains, sewers, and electric conduits 
throughout the district. 

STREET LIGHTING 

The streets in the residential districts surrounding 
the Area are lighted almost entirely by electricity, but 
gas, with outmoded iron standards, is still used for 
street lighting purposes throughout Waverly. From 
time to time, proposals have been made to substitute 
electricity for gas, but no appreciable progress has yet 
been made hi that direction. In some sections, this 
change would slightly increase maintenance costs; in 
others, it would greatly reduce them; but in any case 
it is essential to a broad modernization program. 

FIRE PROTECTION 

Both the sanitary and the fire departments keep 
close check on new construction, so that fire hydrants, 
of which there is at present a sufficient supply, may 
be added as required. 

PLANTING AND LANDSCAPING 

Although many lots definitely require better main- 
tenance and the expenditure of small sums for shrub 
and tree planting, the majority of the lawns in the Area 
are well kept and then- landscaping gives evidence of 
thought and pride. Each property owner, however, 
has treated his planting as an individual problem and 
nowhere has any effort been made to create a unified 
street picture. 

The care of parkway lawns has generally been accept- 
ed as the obligation of abutting property owners and 
these strips are well maintained wherever the adjoining 
lawn is properly kept up. Although tree planting and 
maintenance of these curb strips is the responsibility of 
the Park Board, in many blocks there are few or no 
parkway trees, as compared with the accepted standard 
spacing of twenty feet. School grounds likewise 
require extensive planting. 

Future landscaping should be developed on a block 
or street scale, rather than as a series of unrelated lot 
problems, and it is recommended that the cooperation 
of the Board of Park Commissioners be solicited for that 
purpose. 



TRANSPORTATION 




Trolley 

-- Bus 



TRANSPORTATION 

Adequate transportation for the needs of the Area is 
provided in four directions. Along Greenmount Avenue, 
electric cars supply frequent and fast service south to 
the city's principal business center and north to its 
newer residential districts. East and west, there is 
bus transportation along Thirty-ninth Street, Ellerslie 
Avenue, and Thirty-sixth Street, supplemented by a 
trolley line on Gorsuch Avenue, a block south of the 
district. 

Transportation facilities to and from Waverly are 
mapped in drawing No. 6. 

COMMERCIAL 

Along Greenmount Avenue, which bounds Waverly on 
the west, is a business center that sufficiently supplies 
the commercial, service, and entertainment needs of 
the territory. Within the body of the Area, along the 
northern portion of Old York Road, in a district zoned 
for that purpose, is another small shopping center. 
Scattered elsewhere throughout the district are two 
small, nonconforming manufacturing plants and 26 
nonconforming, converted homes, now used as com- 
bined dwellings and shops. 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



19 



Economic Status 



TAX RATE 

Real estate in Baltimore is assessed for tax purposes 
at its full improved value. Being subject to but two 
taxing bodies the State, which has a present rate of 
$0.23% per $100 of assessed value and the city, whose 
rate is $2.65, or a total of $2.88^ for both the Area is 
fortunate in having escaped the multiplicity of over- 
lapping, independent municipal corporations which so 
complicate the tax picture elsewhere. There are, how- 
ever, no legal restrictions which would prevent the city 
from raising its ad valorem tax at will. 

Current taxes may be paid without penalty between 
January 1 and June 30 and real estate may be sold for 
delinquent taxes at any time after the latter date. As 
a matter of practice, however, sales are usually delayed 
until the statute of limitations which, after 4 years, 
is legally a good defense for the nonpayment of taxes 
is about to become operative. A redemption period of 
1 year after tax sale is provided by the State statutes. 

ASSESSED VALUE 

Information relative to tax assessment and delin- 
quency was obtained by field enumerators from records 
in the City Hall and Courthouse. In 1927, the 1,496 
privately owned and improved residential and com- 
mercial properties in Waverly were assessed at 
$6,068,090 for land and buildings, as compared with 
the 1939 assessment of $7,177,215 on 1,629 structures. 

Although no commercial buildings were constructed 
within the Area during the 12 years under considera- 
tion, the average assessed land and improvement value 
of the business properties within its boundaries in- 
creased from $11,827 to $18,107, or an advance exceed- 
ing 50 percent. One-third of this increase represents 
a mark-up on land and two-thirds of it on improve- 
ments and this notwithstanding the fact that consider- 
able structural depreciation and a sharp slump in 
reproduction costs and market values occurred between 
the years 1927 and 1939. The average assessed value 
of the 53 converted dwellings, which are now also used 
for business purposes, was advanced between those 
years by over 20 percent, four-fifths of that increase, 
however, representing land advance. During the same 

20 



period, the average tax value of wholly resider 
property was largely stationary, with a 6/, percent 
advance practically all in land value. The apparent 
failure to give proper weight to the factor of structural 
depreciation and the absence of uniformity in the 
assignment of increases, indicate a possible superficial 
application of the city's taxing formula and also sug- 
gests that here is a fertile field for constructive effort 
by a neighborhood organization representing the entire 
Area. 

Unless it is stabilized, the increasing financial burd 
imposed by mounting assessments and increasing tax 
rates, which the business community is thus compelled 
to absorb, will tend to promote commercial discontinu- 
ances, will be reflected in increased retail merchandise 
costs, and will eventually compel important economic 
readjustments within the neighborhood. 






Table No. 5 

ASSESSED VALUE 
(Land and improvements) 


Land use 


1927 


1939 


Num- 
ber of 
prop- 
erties 


Assessed 
value 


Num- 
ber of 
prop- 
erties 


Assessed 
value 




19 
53 
1,424 


$224, 715 
240,845 
5, 602, 530 


19 
53 
1,557 


$344,040 
294, 635 
6, 538, 540 


Commercial and residential 




Total 


1,486 


6, 068, 090 


1,629 


7, 177, 215 





Table No. 6 

ASSESSED VALUE 
(Improvements only) 


Land use 


1927 


1939 


Num- 
ber of 
prop- 
erties 


Assessed 
value 


Num- 
ber of 
prop- 
erties 


Assessed 
value 




19 
53 
1,424 


$123, 655 
173,990 
4, 387, 920 


19 
53 
1,557 


$205,600 
188, 210 
4, 761, 595 






Total 


1,496 


4, 685, 565 


1,629 


5, 155, 405 








WAVERLY A STUDY IN 






Table No. 7 
AVERAGE ASSESSED VALUE 


Land use 


Land and improvements 


Improvements only 


1927 


1939 


Increase 


1927 


1939 


Increase 


Commercial 
only 


$11, 827 

4,544 
3,934 


$18, 107 

5,599 
4,199 


$6,280 

1,015 
265 


$6,508 

3,283 
3,088 


$10, 821 

3,551 
3,080 


$4,313 

268 
18 


Commercial and 
residential 
Residential only. 


1 Decline. 






TAX DELINQUENCE 

As of July 31, 1939, approximately 14 percent in 
dollar volume of the total tax levied against residen- 
tial property in Waverly for that year was delinquent, 
as compared with 15 percent for the entire city of 
Baltimore. 

Taxes on only 8 percent of the total number of prop- 
erties in the Area, however, were unpaid, from which it 
may be inferred that, in general, the owners of the less 
costly type of home liquidate their tax obligations 
more promptly than those owners whose average in- 
vestment is greater. 

Almost 10 percent of the properties subject to ground 
lease were delinquent in the payment of taxes, con- 
trasted with a less than 6-percent showing for properties 
where both land arid improvements are under the same 
ownership indicating a somewhat greater degree of 
responsibility among home owners of the latter type. 

F. H. A. AREA GRADING FOR MORTGAGE 
INSURANCE PURPOSES 

The Federal Housing Administration has graded 
virtually all urban areas throughout the country for 
the purpose of establishing their eligibility for mort- 
gage insurance. Under no condition will that agency 
consider an application for Title II insurance in a neigh- 
borhood rated below 50. Grades in Waverly range all 
the way from 58, which is considered "eligible but poor," 
to 84 which is classed "good." 

MORTGAGE STATUS OF WAVERLY 

Basic data relating to the mortgage status of improved 
residential property in Waverly were obtained from 
records in the Baltimore City Hall and Courthouse. 
It is quite probable, however, that the number of mort- 
gaged properties disclosed and the indebtedness re- 
corded against them, somewhat exceeds the actual 
number of encumbrances and the amount of the out- 
standing balances. 

Mortgage liens on Baltimore property generally run 
for a considerable period of years, provide for stated 

NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



periodical reductions and show no formal courthouse 
record of curtailment until the final installment has 
been paid. Mortgagors, when interviewed during the 
progress of the survey, were frequently unwilling or 
unable to supply information concerning the amount 
still unpaid on their mortgage indebtedness. Many 
of the mortgagees are individuals and relatively small 
and scattered loan companies which were either in- 
accessible or were reluctant to provide the desired data. 
Competent information on unpaid mortgage balances 
was therefore unobtainable. In a considerable number 
of cases, also, there is no courthouse record of the exten- 
sion or foreclosure of mortgages which are long past due, 
indicating that, while the borrowers may have paid 
their obligations in full, they have failed to file proper 
release certificates. Available data are therefore inac- 
curate -and probably overstate both the number of 
mortgages outstanding and the total amount remaining 
unpaid on them. 

Although the figures which were secured are undoubt- 
edly inflated, it still appears that less than 40 percent 
of the residential properties in Waverly is subject to 
mortgage encumbrance as compared with a national 
average exceeding 50 percent. 4 The original amount of 
the indebtedness against these properties represents less 
than 33K percent of the value of the structural improve- 
ments on them, as appraised during the course of the 
survey. This compares with a national average exceed- 
ing 55 percent for both land and improvements. 6 

While the Area's mortgage status thus appears to be 
exceedingly favorable, it must be remembered that 
much of the encumbered and unencumbered property 
is also subject to an additional ground rent lien. 

FORECLOSURES 

The statutes of Maryland make no provision for 
redemption after foreclosure, except in the case of 
ejectment from leased property. After the leaseholder 
is ejected, either he or the mortgagee can, in equity, 
recover the property within 6 months. 

During the 20-year period between 1919 and 1939, 
from 12 to 14 percent of the mortgages in the Area 
were foreclosed. The annual rate of foreclosure was 
therefore slightly over six-tenths of 1 percent a note- 
worthy record, since the period considered includes the 
years 1931-33. 

H. O. L. C. HOLDINGS IN WAVERLY 

Mortgages. As of the date of this report, the Home 
Owners' Loan Corporation held 122 mortgages on 



* Real Property Inventory made by Works Progress Administration covering 
7,651,896 out of the total 17,372,524 urban dwellings in the United States. In using 
these data (or comparative purposes, it should be borne in mind that changes in na- 
tional figures have occurred since theinventory was completed in 1936. It is, however 
the most recent and comprehensive source of comparative data available. 

National Bureau of Economic Research, New York. 



21 



Waverly residential property, having an unpaid princi- 
pal value of $252,644, as against a total appraised 
security value of $373,919. The dwellings so encum- 
bered represent approximately ?K percent of the 1,610 
homes in the Area. 

Of these 122 loans, 65 were current in the payment 
of monthly installments, 44 were hi arrears for not 
exceeding 12 months, 12 were delinquent for 12 months 
or more and 1 was in process of foreclosure. Below 
is a comparison of the status of the Corporation's 
Waverly loans with its national figures. 



Table No. 8 
STATUS OF H. O. L. C 


LOANS 




Delinquency 


National 


Waverly 


Not in default 


Percent 
76 


Percent 
53 


N"ot Ovpr 1 2 Tnont.hs 


16 


36 


12 months or over ' ... 


7 


10 


In suspense, etc 


1 


1 








I But not in suspense, etc. 







While the percentage of Waverly loans in default is 
substantially above the national average, the propor- 
tion of those which are either current or not more than 
12 months delinquent, virtually equals that average. 

Acquired Property. Incident to its operations, the 
Corporation acquired title to 28 properties in the Area. 
At the date of this report, 8 of them have been resold, 
and of the 20 which it still owns, 14 have been rented 
and 6 are being held vacant for reconditioning, as a 
precedent to sale or rental. Drawing No. 7 locates all 
H. O. L. C. acquired and mortgaged properties in the 
Waverly area. 

APPRAISED VALUE 

Depreciation, which is the difference between the re- 
production cost of a property and its "as is" value, is of 
three types: 

Physical depreciation is calculated on the basis of 
observed condition and estimated loss sustained through 
wear and tear, deterioration of structural units and me- 
chanical equipment, and may be described broadly 
as the approximate cost necessary to replace, repair, or 
preserve any or all parts of the physical building 
which have been affected by action of the elements or 
destructive forces such as insects, fungus, seepage, or 
decay. It is not to be confused with either functional 
or economic depreciation. 

Functional depreciation is the estimated loss of value 
due to architectural undesirability, inconvenient inter- 
ior arrangement, radical exterior design, excessive un- 



22 



usable space, improper placement upon the plot or any 
of the numerous characteristics inherent in the struc- 
ture which create obsolescence from a utility stand- 
point. This figure is calculable by comparison with 
typical structures of similar proportion and actual or 
probable utility. 

Economic depreciation is the estimated loss of value 
due to influences affecting the neighborhood in general 
and the subject property in particular. Transition to 
lower living standards due to infiltration of undesirable 
racial, industrial or commercial elements are definite 
factors. Any changes of utility, whether from single 
residence to rooming house or converted apartments, 
should be recognized. Unusual competition from any 
cause, the oversupply of institutionally owned proper- 
ties, new developments which detract from typical 
accommodations or other local conditions should be 
considered. High general tax assessment or special 
improvement taxes which are excessive according to 
local income standards, the opening or closing of 
through highways, manufacturing plants, etc., always 
affect the community to a greater or lesser degree. 
Other local conditions not mentioned such as income, 
physical comfort, or the desirability of the location 
generally may also exert an economic force upon the 
community or its inhabitants. 

Based on the field examination and on a thorough 
office study made by Home Owners' Loan Corporation 
technicians, the original reproduction cost of all resi- 
dential structures in Waverly has been estimated at 
$7,071,193, total depreciation at $2,459,867, and "as is" 
value at $4,611,272. The appraised present value is 
therefore approximately 6 percent less than the amount 
shown in table No. 9 at which these buildings were 
assessed for tax purposes in 1939. 






Table No. 9 

APPRAISED VALUE 

(Residential structures only) 


Reproduction 
cost 


Physical de- 
preciation 


Functional- 
economic 
depreciation 


Total depreci- 
ation 


"As is" ap- 
praised value 


$7,071,139 


$1, 386, 697 


$1, 073, 170 


$2. 459, 867 


$4, 611, 272 



VACANCIES 

In normal times, the supply of houses available for 
rent and the curve of rental rates, together constitute 
a reasonably dependable barometer of the social and 
economic trend of a residential area. There is a defi- 
nite relationship between vacancies, permanent rent 
declines, and neighborhood housing conditions. As 
vacancies increase, rent levels fall, maintenance is 
postponed, the relative cost of municipal services 
mounts and, paradoxically, overcrowding and average 
occupancy per room increases. 

WAVERLYA STUDY IN 






HOLC 

MORTGAGED AND ACQUIRED 
PROPERTIES IN THE 
WAVERLY AREA 




KEY 

Mortgaged property 
Acquired property 



Drawing No. 7 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



23 



Available vacancy and rent level figures for the past 
two decades include those for an economically abnor- 
mal period and, when used for purposes of historic 
comparison, produce but a confused pattern. Definite 
inferences concerning present conditions may, however, 
be drawn from an examination of current rent scales 
and vacancy data in Waverly. 

Of the 1,515 single-family residential units surveyed, 
1,496, or 98.8 percent, were found to be occupied. The 
vacancy percentage of the Area is therefore compara- 
tively low. Vacant dwellings, of which there were 19, 
or 1.2 percent, were well scattered. 

This exceedingly high ratio of occupancy for a dis- 
trict of its age and kind indicates, on the one hand, the 
satisfaction of its present residents with housing and 
general neighborhood conditions and, on the other, 
the readiness of prospective purchasers and tenants to 
move into it. 



Table No. 10 

VACANCIES 


Type 


Total 
struc- 
tures 


Number 
Vacant 


Percent 
of 
total 


Detached and semi-detached 
Row houses 


301 
1, 214 


4 
15 


1. 3 
1.2 


Total 


1,515 


1 19 


1.2 




1 Includes 5 owned by Home Owners' Loan Corporation. 



RENT SCALE 

Information obtained from sources considered com- 
petent, sets the current W T averly rent scale at a some- 
what higher level than that for dwellings of similar age 
and type elsewhere in Baltimore. 



Table No. 11 

RENT SCALE 


Class 


Type 


Rent range 


Lowest 


Frame 


i $15-$20 
20- 35 
35- 50 
50- 75 

'75- 85 


Medium 


Frame or brick 


Better 


do 


Good 


do 


Best 


Brick ._ . 






1 Includes approximately 10 units only. 



Approximately 20 percent of the residential struc- 
tures in the Area are tenant occupied, at average rentals 
ranging between $35 and $50. In this connection, it is 



24 



interesting to note that the average monthly rental 
rate for 45 principal cities throughout the United 
States is below $25 and for the southeastern cities is 
under $20. 

FOR SALE AND FOR RENT 

A low rate of residential movement, which may be 
inferred when the supply of available units is at a mini- 
mum, likewise reflects the desire of satisfied owners and 
tenants to continue their present place of residence 
and indicates a sound social and economic neighbor- 
hood condition. 



Table Xu. i'j 


PROPERTY FOR SALE AND FOR RENT 


(Residential structures only) 


Type 


Total 
struc- 
tures 


Num- 
ber for 
sale l 


Per- 
cent of 
total 


Num- 
ber for 
rent 


Per- 
cent of 
total 


Detached and 












emi-detaohed. 


301 


21 


0. 9 


C 


2. 


Row houses. .. 
Total 


1,214 


41 


3.3 


13 


1. 1 
1.2 


1,515 


62 


4.0 


19 




1 Includes 20 properties owned by Home Owners' Loan Corporation. 






It is evident that no residential surplus exists in 
Waverly. Including 20 residential structures now owned 
by the Home Owners' Loan Corporation, only 62 dwell- 
ings or 4 percent of the homes in the Area are offered 
for sale. That only 1.2 percent of all units are available 
for rent is also noteworthy. The percentage of single- 
family, detached and semi-detached residences for sale 
(6.9 percent) is more than twice that of the row hous 
so available (3.3 percent) and virtually the same rati 
of percentages obtains in the case of those for rent. 

COMPARATIVE LEVELS 

At their low point, real estate values in Waverlj 
declined to about 50 percent of their 1926-29 level; 
they have now recovered to about 60 percent of that 
level. This compares with a 50-percent decline and 
negligible recovery in the less desirable neighborhoods 
of the city. 

Rentals for modern brick row houses, particularly in 
the better sections of Waverly, declined to an average 
of 40 percent of their 1926-29 level; they have now 
recovered to about 60 percent of that level. The 
decline in single-family B- and C-grade frame dwellings 
was about 50 percent with a present recovery to about 
60 percent. 




I 



fPAVERLYA STUDY IN 



MARKET encumbered structures and running for from 10 to 25 

years, are accepted by vendors. 

As is to be expected, newly constructed residences 

sell more readily than old, and there is a more active NEW CONSTRUCTION 
market for brick row houses than for one-family de- 
tached frame dwellings. Terms vary to fit the needs Permits for the construction of 16 masonry resi- 
of the purchaser but, in general, existing ground leases dences in Waverly were issued in 1939. Most of these 
are permitted to stand and improvement mortgages, houses were completed at the date of this report, 7 had 
representing from 70 to 80 percent of the value of the been sold, and 9 were still unoccupied. 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 25 



Structural Status 



NEIGHBORHOOD DEVELOPMENT 

The earliest dwelling in the section now known as 
Waverly, of which there is any record, was built in 1830. 
During the succeeding 50 years, residential construc- 
tion was confined almost entirely to a small district 
near what is now the intersection of Wyanoke Avenue 
and Argonne Drive and to the 2 blocks bounded by Old 
York Road, Greenmount Avenue, Thirty-third Street, 
and Thirty-fifth Street. In all of that period, but 42 
residences were built. During the following 10 years, 
construction accelerated sharply, that decade account- 
ing for the erection of almost 4 times as many houses as 
were built during the entire preceding half century. 
These buildings, the majority of which were of frame 
construction, were modest detached or semi-detached 
homes of the various Victorian styles popular during 
that era. Even as late as 1895, however except for 
the 2 small districts described above Waverly and all 
of the territory beyond it to the east, north, and west, 
was still a farm and country estate community, in 
which frame construction predominated over masonry 
in the ratio of 3 to 1. 

Building operations slackened during the 1895-1905 
decade, but in that period masonry construction for the 
first time exceeded frame and thereafter virtually dis- 
placed it. Volume began to improve about 1910, 
reached its peak in the 5 years immediately following 
the close of the World War when over 750 permits 
were issued and began to decline in 1926, in sympathy 
with the general slump in national construction. 
Though there has been marked improvement during 
the past 18 months, the total building volume for the 
decade ending with 1939 was less than that for any 
similar period during the past half century. 

Frame structures, mostly built prior to 1915, now 
comprise 15.4 percent of the homes in Waverly, and 
masonry structures, largely erected within the decade 
1915-25, make up the remaining 84.6 percent. 

The growth of the district, and the consequent 
eastward movement of construction, is clearly indicated 
in the accompanying four drawings, Nos. 8, 9, 10, and 
11. showing its structural density in the years 1894, 
1906, 1914, and 1939. The transition from frame to 
brick construction is apparent in table No. 13. 



Table No. 13 

AGE AND MATERIAL 

(Residential structures only) 


Year built 


Number bulit 


Total 

for 
period 


Frame 


Masonry 


1884 and earlier 


30 
115 
52 
28 
17 
1 
1 
1 
2 


12 
39 
59 
270 
737 
164 
29 
49 
4 


42 
154 
111 
298 
754 
165 
30 
50 
6 


1885-94. 


1895-1004 


1905-14 


1915-24 


1925-29 


1930-34 


1935-39 


No report 


Total 


247 


1, 3G3 


1, 010 





In comparatively recent years, Waverly except di- 
rectly to the south has been quite rapidly and com- 
pletely surrounded by residential developments which 
include many fine and costly modern homes, embody- 
ing the best in the design, construction technique, and 
mechanical excellence of a late era. Thus, at the very 
core of one of Baltimore's best and still growing 
residential communities, lies the much older Waverly 
area which, compared with the neighborhoods that sur- 
round it on three sides, has for some years shown a grad- 
ual trend that is opposite to, rather than parallel with, 
that of its environs. 



GRADUAL COORDINATION 



As so frequently happens in old and slowly maturing 
communities, the Waverly area has an irregular and 
unscientific street pattern. Old homes are intermin- 
gled with newer structures, frame construction keeps 
company with brick, and maintenance ranges all the 
way from excellent to poor. Clearly apparent on 
drawings Nos. 8, 9, 10, and 11, however, is a progressive 
improvement in neighborhood planning, which indicat 
a developing consciousness of the necessity for the 



urine' 



26 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 



alinement and proper placement of the structural com- 
ponents of a residential block and for coordination in 
the arrangement of streets, parkways, and alleys 
until finally the last platted area, that along Westcr- 
wald and Ellerslie Avenues, exhibits a reasonably nor- 
mal street, parkway, and alley design, uniform building 
lines, and orderly structural placement. 

LAND USE 

In the land use table which follows, privately owned 
vacant lots are listed as "not improved." Property 
improved for church, school, library, hospital, charita- 
ble, park, playground, municipal protective, and like 
purposes, and city-owned vacant land, is tabulated as 
"tax exempt." Lots on which there arc one-story row 
garages, intended for rental, but which arc otherwise 
not improved, are separately classified in table No. 14 
but in subsequent tabulations are included with pri- 
vately owned vacant lots. Buildings originally de- 
signed primarily for business purposes are listed as 
"commercial only." Former residential properties, now 
in part converted to commercial use but still also occu- 
pied as homes, are tabulated in tables Nos. 14 and 
15 as "commercial and residential" but, since their 
commercial use represents nonconformancc and is invar- 
iably subordinate to their residential use, they arc sub- 
sequently listed as "residential only." Structures used 
wholly as residences, whether detached, semi-detached, 
or in rows, are tabulated as "residential only." 
' There are 1,748 parcels of real estate in the area, of 
which 223 are improved with single-family detached 
residences, 1,214 with single-family attached houses in 
rows, 78 with semi-detached 2-family dwelling units 
"side by side," 30 with 2-family dwellings "up and 
down," 12 with multiple-family structures, 53 with 
converted homes now used for both business and resi- 
dential purposes, 17 with commercial structures, 2 with 
small manufacturing plants employing from 8 to 15 
persons each, and 46 with 1-story commercial garages 



Table No. 14 

LAND USE 

(Unimproved and improved) 






Use 


Total 
reported 


Percent 


Not improved, privately owned 


38 


2 2 


Tax exempt _ 


35 


2 


One-story row garages 


46 


2 6 


Commercial and industrial . 


19 


1 2 


Commercial and residential 


53 


3 


Residential only 


1, 557 


89 








Total 


1 748 


100 









in rows. In addition, there are 35 lots which are 
used for religious or municipal purposes and are tax- 
exempt and 38 which are privately owned and are 
unimproved. 

Lots, as originally platted, frequently included a 
street frontage far exceeding that required for a single- 
family dwelling one of the unimproved lots La block 
No. 4053, for example, has a total frontage of 495 feet. 
Thus, there are vacant areas in Waverly still sufficient 
for the construction of several hundred new homes. 

RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES 

Only 1.2 percent of the property in Waverly is im- 
proved with structures originally built for business 
purposes; another 3 percent is unproved with single- 
family residences now also converted to commercial 
use. Computation of the number of residential struc- 
tures shows that row houses predominate in the Area, 
as they do in comparable neighborhoods elsewhere in 
the city, over 75 percent of the total number of resi- 
dential buildings in the district being of that type. 
Virtually all of the two-family "side-by-side" structures 
have double ownership and they, together with single- 
family detached houses, comprise approximately 20 
percent of the total. Only six-tenths of 1 percent are 
multiple-family structures, and less than 2 percent are 
single-family, two-story dwellings now converted to 
two-family use. 

When they were newly built, these homes were 
modern and desirable for their era, type, and kind. 
But better techniques were constantly being evolved 
during the long period of Waverly's growth and, con- 
sequently, the Area today provides a virtually complete 
cross-section of the development of small-home func- 
tional, structural, and architectural design during the 
past 75 years. 



Table No. 15 

ANALYSIS OF EXIS1ING RESIDENTIAL 
STRUCTURAL TYPES 


Type 


Number 
of struc- 
tures 


Percent 
of total 
structures 


Single-family, detached .. 


223 

1, 214 
78 
30 
6 
G 
53 


13.8 
75.3 
4.7 
1.8 
0.3 
0. 3 
3.8 


Single-family, row 


2-family, "side-bv-side"__ 


2-familv, "up-and-down" 


3-famil3 T , 3 floors 


4-family and over 


Commercial and residential 


Total 


1,610 


100. 





NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



27 



STRUCTURAL 





As of 1894 



AND STREET 



Drawings Nos. 8 and 9 



28 



WAVERLYA STUDY IN 



DEVELOPMENT 




OF WAVERLY 



Drawmss Nos. 10 and II 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSER VA TION 



29 



EXTERIOR MATERIAL 

Brick exterior wall construction prevails in Waverly. 
Frame buildings comprise only 15.4 percent of the 
total number of structures and practically all of them 
were built prior to 1915. Since that year, more than 
1,000 houses have been constructed in the Area of 
which all but 22 are masonry. 

Stone as an outside wall material occurs infrequently 
and then with the exception of three structures on 
Thirty-ninth Street only as an embellishment to brick 
construction. During the early years of the present 
century, 61 cement block, 2-family, "sidc-by-side" 
houses were erected, largely on Cator and Forty-first 
Street by a builder who had previously acquired a 
block-molding machine, probably for the purpose of 
competing with the product of a brickyard which, 
somewhat earlier, had been established adjacent to the 
Area and was supplying a considerable portion of the 
wall material used in it. Occasionally, in the process 
of rehabilitation, stucco or asbestos shingles have been 
applied to an old wood surface, but at least 1,300 of the 
1,610 structures in the Area are of brick construction. 



Table No. 16 

EXTERIOR MATERIAL 

(Residential structures only) 


Material 


Number 


Percent 


Frame 


247 
1,363 


15.4 
84,6 


Masonry 


Total 


1,610 


100.0 





COMMERCIAL STRUCTURES 

Commercial structures in and adjacent to Waverly 
greatly vary in age. The majority of them both in 
number and importance lie along Greenmount Avenue, 
the center of which thoroughfare bounds the project on 
the west. They include chain stores, super-markets, 
ladies' and men's shops, drug stores, bakeries, groceries, 
meat markets, savings and loan association offices, 
garages and repair shops, restaurants, and theaters. 

That portion of Greenmount Avenue which bounds 
Waverly on the west, has a frontage of 4,250 feet. 



All commercial structures on that frontage, however, 
are by ordinance confined to the two blocks which lie 
south of Thirty-fifth Street a frontage of only 850 
feet. The frontage north of Thirty-fifth Street has 
been zoned for multiple-family apartment use and, as 
such, far exceeds neighborhood needs. Because its 
present zoning status adversely affects the use of all 
residential property on Greenmount Avenue north of 
Thirty-fifth Street, it is recommended later in this report 
that the present zoning ordinance be amended so as 
to restrict it to one- and two-family residential use only. 



Table NCI. 17 

RATIO OF COMMERCIAL TO RESIDENTIAL 
STRUCTURES > 


Use 


Number 


Percent 


Commercial and industrial 


19 
1,610 


1. 16 
98.84 


Residential 


Total 


1,629 


100.00 




' Commercial row garages, tax-eiempt lots, and unimproved lots omitted. 



A group of 10 small shops, 9 of which are housed in 
converted dwellings, has gradually developed along 
the northern end of Old York Road, in a district zoned 
for business. Elsewhere within the body of the Area 
are 44 scattered former residences now used also as 
stores, only 18 of which are in areas zoned for com- 
mercial use. 

It is evident that Waverly is predominantly a 
residential neighborhood, dwellings comprising 98.84 
percent of the total number of structures, as against 
only 1.16 percent of commercial buildings. 

As this report is chiefly concerned with the problem 
of residential property decline and conservation in 
the Waverly area and because the consolidation of 
figures for commercial and residential properties 
particularly where dollar values are involved would 
so distort calculations avd tables as to render them 
virtually valueless for purposes of comparison and 
analysis, data covering properties used primarily for 
business purposes have been omitted from all com- 
pilations which follow, unless exception is specifically 
noted in the title of the connected tabulation. 












30 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 




Structural Condition 



DEFINITION 

The residential desirability of a given urban neigh- 
borhood is largely influenced by its church, school, rec- 
reational, amusement, and transportation facilities; by 
its water, gas, electric, sewer, and street pavement pro- 
vision; by its landscaping; and by the degree to which 
its housing units are standard in equipment and main- 
tenance. 

The characteristics which render a dwelling substand- 
ard vary considerably from region to region and from 
city to city. It is relatively difficult, therefore, to set 
up a precise definition of the term "substandard hous- 
ing" but obsolete architectural form, inconvenient 
interior arrangement or radical exterior design, absence 
or obsolescence of those plumbing, heating, and light- 
ing facilities which are usual to the locality, over- 
crowding, abnormal deterioration, and unsafe condition 
of the physical structure are all factors which render a 
dwelling unit substandard. 

INFILTRATION 

Although it lies within the boundaries of a large urban 
center, Waverly's population is a fair cross-section of 
that of the average small American city. Many owners 
have occupied their present homes for a long period of 
years. While a considerable number of the one-family, 
residential structures in the Area arc unattractive in 
architectural design and plan, lack modern appointments 
and equipment, surfer from some degree of deferred 
maintenance and invite undesirable occupancy, the 
occupants of the great majority of the Area's dwellings 
are accepted as desirable neighbors. It is for this 
reason and because a large volume of comparatively 
recent brick construction has temporarily served to 
lower the average structural age and raise the average 
structural condition of the community that the resi- 
dents of Waverly have not yet fully realized the danger 
of the infiltration of families having more limited earn- 
ing capacity and lower living and civic standards than 
their own, which the comparatively small number of 
depreciated single structures and structural groups at 
various points in the Waverly area is definitely en- 
couraging. 



ONE-FAMILY DETACHED AND SEMI- 
DETACHED HOMES 

Lot frontages for detached houses average 28 feet, 
which is somewhat greater than the minimum the city 
is expected to establish, in the near future, for compara- 
ble construction. 

Approximately 200 of the 301 detached and semi-de- 
tached homes in the Area are well cared for, need no 
remodeling, and require only minor if any mainte- 
nance repairs. All of them have central heating plants, 
running water, indoor flush toilets, and comparatively 
modern bathroom and kitchen equipment. Like the 
row houses described below, they will continue to at- 
tract a desirable class of purchasers and tenants. 

There are, however, some 100 detached and semi- 
detached homes, 35 to 50 years old, located singly and 
in groups in many parts of the Area, which are definitely 
depreciated, both physically and functionally, and 
which require extensive reconditioning and moderniz- 
ing. Drawing No. 12 on page 32 shows the dispersion 
of these sore spots and drawing No. 24 on page 54 
shows the influence being exerted by one of them. 

Structurally, these homes are in a poor state of repair. 
Their kitchen and bathroom equipment and fixtures 
are obsolete; under some 15 of them which now have 
no basements, excavation of a space at least sufficient 
to accommodate central heating plants should be made; 
considerable architectural revision is desirable, if they 
are to be restored to the general standard of the Area. 
They constitute definite neighborhood sore spots; have 
unfavorably affected property values and what may 
perhaps be described as neighborhood morale in their 
immediate vicinity; and their adverse influence will, 
unless checked and reversed, eventually extend much 
farther into the community. Immediate effort should 
therefore be made to induce their owners to bring them 
back to the general neighborhood level, at least so far 
as maintenance is concerned, in substantial conformity 
to the recommendations embodied in the Master Plan. 

ROW HOUSES 

Row houses account for 1,214 residential units in 
Waverly. Although they are scattered more or less 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



31 



EvrlMI 



fiMfJ - . ; . 

Vi W.,. ^jdii-^P^" 



ifr'BsiBicwy 



! : J^Wii\\^ 

MttifTip'V'Tt m * .Si XV" 



,> .V. WKJU Hl.oirri 



L^N-.'?^^/~~ ~~#*,-'/ / ;jj^N .iT"-^' 




DEPRECIATED AREAS 



KEY 

Areas suffering Irom 
physical depreciation due to 
old age, lack of maintenance, 
and unrestricted land utilization. 



Drawin 3 No. 12 



32 



WAVERLYA STUDY IN 



indiscriminately throughout the Area, the large majority 
of them are concentrated in its southern half. A few 
date back as far as 35 years, but approximately 80 
percent of them were constructed during the period 
immediately following the AVorld War. The most 
modern and desirable of these row houses arc located 
along Thirty-third Street, the eastern end of Thirty- 
fourth and Thirty-fifth Streets, on Wcstcrwald Avenue 
and along the whole of Ellerslie Avenue. 

In design, arrangement, kitchen, bathroom, and 
mechanical equipment, they conform to neighborhood 
standards. All have central heating plants hot air, 
steam or hot water and many are equipped with oil 
burners. The newer and higher priced have tiled baths, 
built-in tubs, and showers. Practically all of them are- 
well maintained physically and pride of ownership is 
demonstrated by the condition of lawns and the extent 
of planting and landscaping. Most row-house owners 
have used uniform paint shades in block groups, but 
displeasing evidences of individualistic taste in color 
selection are occasionally found. In general, however, 
owners have recognized the fact that the use of uniform 
color throughout each block adds to the attractiveness 
of their homes. 

Except for two contiguous groups, more fully de- 
scribed in a subsequent section, only continued mainte- 
nance at the present level and, in some cases, more 
extensive planting, have been recommended for these 
row houses. 

Lot widths vary from 14 to 22 feet and are typical of 
those on which thousands of comparable Baltimore 
homes arc built. They appear to satisfy and acceptably 
serve owners and tenants who require homes of this 
general type. 

TWO-FAMILY, TWO-STORY HOUSES 

Scattered generally throughout the Area are 30 two- 
fan] ily, two-story structures. Approximately 90 percent 
of them are converted single-family dwellings and 
practically all exceed 40 years in age. Predominantly 
of frame construction, they are in a fair state of repair. 

MULTIPLE-FAMILY STRUCTURES 

Largely concentrated on the western border of the 
Area, along Greenmount Avenue, north of Thirty- 
fifth Street, are 12 multiple-family properties, contain- 
ing a total of 51 residential units. Of these 12 struc- 



tures, 9 are converted dwellings, and 3 were originally 
built for multiple-family use. All but 2 of them are of 
frame construction, 8 are more than 40 years old and 
all are reasonably well maintained. 

PLACEMENT 

Failure to establish and observe uniform building 
lines and structural spacings, is one of the less impor- 
tant causes of neighborhood disintegration. Following 
a survey made some years ago by the Board of Zoning 
Appeals, as a precedent to the first zoning ordinance, it 
was estimated that 50 percent of the single-family, row 
and detached residential structures in Baltimore do not 
conform to those standards of alinement and spacing 
which accumulating experience has proved necessary 
for free traffic flow, safety at street intersections, and 
health, as the last is influenced by light and air. 

Building set-back lines have never been established 
in Waverly and, too frequently, throughout the older 
sections of the Area proper spacing and structural 
alinement seem to have been totally disregarded. All 
of the residences on the western portion of Venablc 
Avenue for example are detached, single-f amily struc- 
tures, one room wide and several rooms deep, with an 
interstructural space which averages not more than 10 
feet. Necessarily, windows are largely located at the 
front and back of these buildings; window spacing and 
placement fail to provide sufficient ventilation and 
light; and based on present-day standards the build- 
ings are unsanitary in these respects. On the south 
side of Thirty-fifth Street, between Old York Road and 
Westerwald Avenue, an entire group of single-family 
homes has been crowded on long narrow lots, with in- 
sufficient spacing, restricted light, and inadequate ven- 
tilation. On Old York Road, between Thirty-sixth 
Street and Chestnut Hill Avenue is an even worse ex- 
ample of irregular and fantastic lot dimensions, struc- 
tural overcrowding and not even the vague semblance 
of a uniform building line, as depicted in drawing No. 13 
on the following page. 

This condition can be rectified only gradually. For 
that purpose, proper set-back lines should at once be 
established throughout the Area and those lots which, 
by reason of their narrow frontage, have promoted 
improper structural spacing, should now be mapped 
for progressive resubdivision and enlargement. As 
later demolition and new construction proceed, proper 
alinement and adequate spacing for light and air will 
thus be assured. 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSER VA T1ON 



33 



ci 

3J 



O 
C 



Z 
C 






CHESTNUTHILL AVENUE 




EXAMPLE OF IRREGULAR BUILDING ALIGNMENT 



KEY 

Residences 

Garages 

Proposed building fines 



Drawing No. 13 




34 



WAVERLYA STUDY IN 



Structural Rehabilitation 



DETACHED AND SEMI-DETACHED HOUSES 

While the great majority of the homes in Waverly, 
as a whole, either need minor or no current repairs, a 
considerable percentage of its single-family, detached 
and semi-detached houses, located in virtually all sec- 
tions of the Area, require more or less extensive re- 
conditioning and modernization. Group examples of 
this condition occur near the western end of Venable 
Avenue; on Old York Road between Thirty-third and 
Thirty-fifth Streets; along the south side of Thirty- 
fifth Street in the 600 block; in the 600 block on 
Wyanoke Avenue; on Chestnut Hill Avenue; and along 
the upper end of Frisby Street. Also scattered through- 
out the Area are several smaller groups and individ- 
ual units which are in need of considerable major 
reconditioning. 



Table No. 18 

EXTERIOR CONDITION 

(Single, semi-detached, and two-flat) 


Item 


Good 


Fair 


Poor 


Roofs. 


27 
34 
40 
49 
31 
26 
27 
51 


224 
270 
272 
273 
266 
249 
157 
188 


70 
27 
19 
9 
34 
56 
147 
92 


Chimneys 


Exterior walls ' - ______ 


Foundations 


Porches - 


Sheet metal 


Painting - - - 


Sidewalks 




'Except paint. 



Table No. 18 groups Waverly's 331 detached, semi- 
detached and two-flat structures according to exterior 
maintenance needs. It shows that 28 percent of all of 
the non-row housing structures in the Area are in poor 
condition and that another 57 percent need some 
degree of repair. 

In developing the Waverly program, it was necessary 
to determine the best future use of all parts of the 
district, in relation to the development of the city and 
metropolitan area, before recommendations for the 



rehabilitation of individual properties could be intelli- 
gently formulated. A summary of the studies covering 
area zoning, population-density control, and street pat- 
tern adjustment, made during the survey and planning 
phase, appears elsewhere in this report as Appendix D. 
Based on the field survey and on an office analysis of 
each dwelling and its environment, a general program 
for the structural rehabilitation of virtually all depreci- 
ated buildings in the district and, in many cases, for 
their architectural treatment was developed. The 
estimated cost of the exterior structural reconditioning 
and architectural treatment so recommended is approxi- 
mately $150,000. 

PROFIT 

As is apparent in table No. 19, exterior reconditioning 
will show a profit in the form of increased property 
values estimated at 20 percent over the cost of the 
work involved. 

Based on a careful and sufficient sampling, it has been 
estimated that the cost of the interior decoration, 
structural repair and replacement of obsolete plumbing, 
heating, and kitchen equipment, which is essential to 
the restoration of these structures to general neighbor- 
hood standards, will be not less than $50,000, and that 
the ratio of resulting value increase to cost will approxi- 
mately duplicate that shown in table No. 19 for exterior 
repairs. 

The profit factor, however, is of only secondary im- 
portance in the Waverly conservation project. Pres- 
ervation of social values and protection of equities 
rather than general equity enhancement are its pri- 
mary purposes. 



Table No. 19 

EXTERIOR RECONDITIONING 

(Residential structures only) 


"As is" 
appraised 
value 


"As recon- 
ditioned" 
value 


Estimated 
cost of 
recon- 
ditioning 


Increase 
over cost 
of recon- 
ditioning 


Percent 
increase 
over 
cost 


$1, 024, 035 


$1, 203, 830 


$149, 022 


$30, 773 


20 



NEIGH UO K HOG D CONSER VA TION 



35 



SUGGESTED PROGRESSIVE IMPROVEMENT IN LAND 
USE AT OLD YORK ROAD AND VENABLE AVENUE 




PRESENT 



STEP I 



STEP 2 



Drawing No. I 4 




PRESENT 






STEP 





STEP 2 




FUTURE ULTIMATE PLAN 



36 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 



DETAILED STUDIES 

Illustrating group structural studies, drawing No. 14 
depicts a three-stage utilization of the now vacant 
northwest and southwest corners of Old York Road 
and Venable Avenue. 

Detailed studies were also made of one or more 
residential structures in each block, the condition of 
which was found to be below the standard of mainte- 
nance set for the neighborhood. Consideration was 
given to the repair, remodeling, modernization, embel- 
lishment, and landscaping necessary to restore the sub- 
ject dwelling to the highest feasible standard, con- 
sistent with its present economic and physical condition, 
its surroundings, and the common plan for the Area as 
a whole. In this connection a careful estimate of cost 
was made and a pencil sketch, embodying desirable 
architectural changes, was frequently prepared. 

When the second stage of the Waverly program is 
inaugurated, each block captain will be furnished with 



a kit, made up of structural rehabilitation studies, cost 
estimates, sketches, street revision maps, interior play 
area plans, landscaping recommendations, etc., relating 
to his particular block, and with a description of the 
project operating plan and objectives. Thus he will 
be equipped to present visually, by means of an exam- 
ple which may be easily comprehended by, and is well 
known to, each property owner assigned to him, the 
project approach to community conservation, with 
particular reference to the maintenance level which has 
been established for his own immediate neighborhood 
and for the Area as a whole. 

EXAMPLES 

Following is the estimated cost of the work recom- 
mended in connection with the repair and remodeling 
study illustrated in drawing No. 15: 
Add new railing to porch roof and install new porch 

columns $150 

Remove dormer and rebuild roof as shown on sketch 92 



EXAMPLE OF SUGGESTED REHABILITATION 




OMIT P/NT 



CHOUSE 
CNIIIMtY ' 




Before 



After 



Drawing No. 1 5 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



37 



Change chimney cap $10 

Repaint all exterior trim and openings and restain shingle 

165 



walls 

New shrubbery. 



25 



Total- $442 

The estimated cost of the rehabilitation program 
shown in drawing No. 16 is as follows: 

Alternate 
No. 1 No. 2 

Wrecking and repairing $35 $35 

Install new terrace, columns, entrance, canopy, 

and blinds where indicated. _ 273 752 

Change chimney caps 25 25 

Repaint all exterior trim and openings 125 175 

New shrubbery 25 25 

Total $483 $1,012 

ROW HOUSES 

There are 1,214 row-house units scattered throughout 
the Area, more than 900 of which were constructed 
during the decade following the World War. In general, 
they show definite evidence of pride in ownership, need 
little or no major remodeling or repair and, except for 
additional planting and landscaping here and there, 
require only current maintenance treatment. Archi- 
tectural readjustments are desirable, but not essential, 
in two contiguous groups of identical design, one in the 
4000 block on Greenmount Avenue and the other in the 
500 block on Forty-first Street. 

PROMPT REHABILITATION NECESSARY 

Due to the fact that approximately 1,000 brick row- 
house units (or over 60 percent of all dwellings in the 
Area) are modern and comparatively new, the average 
structural condition of the community can be rated 
"fair to good." Few, if any, of the dwellings in Waverly 
should at this time be classified as substandard, but 
unless the definite physical and functional depreciation 
which now marks a considerable number of them is 
promptly corrected, that rating will be justified within 
a comparatively short period of time. The recondi- 
tioning which is required is neither complex nor costly, 
but the value and residential desirability of the units 
directly involved and of their neighbors will be 
adversely affected unless and until it is completed. 

H. O. L. C. POLICY 

In order (1) to put the properties which it still owns 
into the best practical condition for rental or sale, (2) 
to assist in establishing practical community recondi- 
tioning standards, and (3) to inspire the cooperation of 
other owners hi the Waverly Conservation Program by 
providing them with outstanding examples of sound 



reconditioning and maintenance, the Corporation as 
the largest single property holder in the Area is mak- 
ing such exterior and interior architectural alterations 
and is performing such exterior and ulterior recondi- 
tioning work as is justified by the type, surroundings, 
and condition of its acquired properties and by the com- 
mon plan for neighborhood stabilization. 

Particularly in those cases where the interior design 
is bad, alterations are being made which will at least 
equal and sometimes exceed project standards for sur- 
rounding property. The average cost of reconditioning 
the 15 Corporation properties which are in need of repair 
is $663 ; the average value increase which it is estimated 
will result, is $797. 



Table No. 20 

RECONDITIONING OF H. O. L. C. ACQUIRED 
PROPERTIES 


Number 
owned 


Appraised 
value "as is" 


Estimated 
reconditioning 
cost 


Estimated 
value "as 
reconditioned" 


i 20 


$62, 725 


$9, 949 


$74, 690 


i Five of which will require no reconditioning under this program. 



INTERIOR PLAYGROUNDS 

Waverly is markedly deficient in recreational space, 
particularly for younger children. Vacant block or 
part-block areas, suitable for formal city playgrounds, 
are nowhere available within the district. In develop- 
ing recreational facilities for Waverly, an "interior play 
area" scheme was therefore adopted. 

This plan, so successfully followed in Flint, Mich., 
that it is frequently referred to as the "Flint plan," has 
been used in numerous cities where funds and open 
space suitable for formal, city-financed and supervised 
playgrounds are lacking. Under it, abutting owners 
lease or pool the property which constitutes the core of 
their block and, with the approval and cooperation of 
the City Park Commission or an equivalent agency, 
landscape both the block rim that is, the parkways 
and private lawns along the four encircling streets and 
the proposed recreational space. The Commission usu- 
ally supplies necessary equipment, consisting of swings, 
sand boxes, etc., and subsequently maintains both the 
rim and interior landscaping. Thereafter, the interior 
play area is conducted by the abutting property owners 
as a joint enterprise, wholly independent of municipal 
service and control except for planting maintenance. 

Twelve Flint plan interior play areas have been rec- 
ommended in the Waverly Master Plan for develop- 
ment at the locations indicated in drawing No. 17 on 
page 40. 






38 



WAVERJ.YA STUDY IN 



EXAMPLES OF SUGGESTED REHABILITATION 




BEFORE 



] ALTERNATE 1 



1. Wrecking and repairing. 

2. Install new entrance and blinds where 

indicated. 

3. Repaint all exterior 

4. Restain shingles. 




ALTERNATE 2 



1. Install new porch columns, en- 

trance canopy, and bitnds when 
indicated. 

2. Change chimney cap. 

3. Repaint all exterior trim and open- 

ings and restain shingles. 

4. Wrecking and necessary repairs. 



AFTER 



Drawing No. 16 






NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



39 




.... 

1*1 , -'-> 

lliltf , ' 

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I I t 



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-..-'.' 

>>c 



RECOMMENDED 
PLAYGROUND DEVELOPMENT 





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KEY 



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* ' *.*.. ' 

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^* 















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- . 3: ' 

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Drawing No. 1 7 



40 



ITAVERLYA STUDY IN 



Zoning 



ORDINANCE 

Insofar as Waverly is concerned, the general zoning 
ordinance enacted by the city of Baltimore in 1926, 
had three major purposes: (a) The prohibition of 
industrial operation within the Area; (6) the limitation 
of occupancy in terms of building heights and families 
per acre; and (c) the definition of those districts to 
which commercial and multiple family structures 
must be confined. It contained no provision for the 
removal of those structures, existing at the time of its 
enactment, which it defined as nonconforming and the 
use of these buildings can therefore be continued until 
they are reconverted, demolished, or destroyed. 

In conformity with the symbols employed in the 
zoning ordinance, "C-lH" is used in this report to indi- 
cate a permitted population density of 80 families per 
acre or a maximum of 545 square feet for each 
family and the construction of single-family, two- 
family, and row dwellings and multiple-family apart- 
ments, not exceeding 3 stories in height. The symbol 
<: D-40" is used to indicate a density limitation of 40 
families per acre or a maximum of 1,089 square feet 
for each family and a use limitation which excludes 
apartments intended for more than 2 families. 

ZONING TO CONTROL USE-HEIGHT AND 
POPULATION DENSITY 

Present C-l% area. That portion of drawing No. 
18 which is screened and designated as C-l} includes 
all of Waverly's frontage on Greenmount Avenue and 
Thirty-third Street. A population density up to 80 
families per acre and the construction of apartment 
buildings up to 3 stories in height are thus permitted 
along the entire western and southern boundaries of 
the district. This C-lK area includes 1,553,580 square 
feet, or 24.3 acres out of a total of 163 acres in Waverly. 
Approximately 1,475 families, in addition to the 445 
which now occupy it, could be housed within its limits, 
were it populated to the full capacity permitted by 
ordinance. 

Conversion to D-40 classification. Local population 
pressure is always one of the chief factors that determine 



the best use of land available for residential construc- 
tion or occupancy. When such pressure warrants 
intensive land use, a C-lK classification with its 
higher assessment base is economically sound. 

No such pressure and consequent need for intensive 
land use now exists or is to be anticipated, within any 
reasonable period, on Greenmount Avenue between 
Thirty-fifth and Forty-second Streets, or on Thirty- 
third Street between Old York Road and Ellerslie 
Avenue. The inclusion of these frontages in a C-lH 
classification has therefore long subjected them to a 
rate of taxation which is unwarranted by their present 
or prospective use. 

An examination of the improvements on the west side 
of Greenmount Avenue, above Thirty-fifth Street 
outside the Area but directly opposite the property on 
Greenmount referred to above bears out this analysis. 
These structures doubtless representing their builders' 
collective opinion of the highest and most practical 
type of improvement for property so located consist 
largely of single family, two-story dwellings, usually in 
attached groups of five or more. So far as can reason- 
ably be anticipated, conditions will continue to limit 
economically sound construction on both sides of 
Greenmount Avenue and on Thirty-third Street 
also to this general type, thus entitling the property 
to a D^40 instead of its present C-VA rating. 

Along the west side of Old York Road adjoining the 
northern boundary of Waverly is also a considerable 
area which is now improved as a D-40 district but has 
likewise been given a C-l }{ rating. 

The project planning department has recommended 
that the land 011 the east side of Greenmount Avenue 
between Thirty -fifth and Forty-second Streets; that 
on the north side of Thirty-third Street between Old 
York Road and Ellerslie Avenue; that on Old York 
Road south of Thirty-fourth Street; and that on Old 
York Road near the northern boundary of the Area be, 
by city ordinance, converted to a D-40 classification. 
By so doing, property embracing 1,413,800 square 
feet or approximately 21.1 acres and including 11 
vacant and 410 improved lots, will be more correctly 
rated and values assessed for tax purposes sharply 



NEIGHBOR HOOD CONSER VA TION 



41 



USE HEIGHT 
RESTRICTIONS 



: ... 

;;.:,.'; c;:*tii * 



'^-- u ,Vf '' | (.''-- 



PERMITS 80 FAM 
PER ACRE WITH 
A MAXIMUM OF 
544 Sfl. FT. PER 
FAMILY. 



PERMITS 40 FAM 
PER ACRE WITH 
A MAXIMUM OF 
IO89SQ. FT. PER 
FAMILY. 




RECOMMENDED 



Drawing No. 18 



12 



A STUDY IN 



reduced. Present and recommended redesignation is 
indicated by screening on drawing No. 18. 

Present D-lfi area. The zoning ordinance classifies 
as D-40 property the unscreened area which is shown 
on drawing No. 18, embracing approximately 138 acres 
of land. Except for the addition to this area of the 421 
present C-l} lots described above, no change in the 
population density classification of any part of Waverly 
is recommended. 

ZONING TO CONTROL COMMERCIAL USE 

Commercial districts. The Baltimore zoning ordi- 
nance prohibited the use of land in Waverly for indus- 
trial purposes. By its terms, two areas were set apart 
for commercial use one along Greenmount Avenue 
between Thirty-third and Thirty-fifth Streets and the 
other on Old York Road between Wyanoke Avenue and 
Forty-first Street. 

The first of these districts, comprising an area of 
approximately 4 acres, is improved with 31 structures 
of various types, ranging from dilapidated frame to 
modern brick, and of various ages, up to 60 years or 
more. It includes chain and individually owned food, 
clothing, drug and automobile supply stores, together 
with markets, restaurants, theatres, etc., amply suffi- 
cient in number and diversification for the Waverly 
area and for the other residential communities immedi- 
ately adjacent to it. A second district has been zoned 
for commercial use near the northern end of Old York 
Road and comprises 16 small shops, offering a varied 
type of merchandise and services. Nine of these enter- 
prises are housed in Converted dwellings and seven in 
buildings constructed for business or combined business 
and apartment purposes. 

Drawing No. 19 on the following page indicates, by 
screen, (1) the two districts at present zoned for com- 
mercial use, and (2) the sections to which it is recom- 
mended such use be hereafter limited. 

Noncortfarmance. It is a generally accepted prin- 
ciple, among students of urban problems, that non- 
conformance to existing land-use restrictions definitely 
promotes property depreciation and encourages neigh- 
borhood decay. Two small factories one manufac- 
turing potato chips and the other musical instruments, 
each employing from 8 to 15 persons, and a coal yard, 
all located near Greenmount Avenue and indicated in 
drawing No. 21 as being used industrially constitute 
perhaps the most important nonconforming land utiliza- 
tion in Waverly. In addition, some 26 stores, housed 
in converted residences, devoted largely to food dis- 
tribution and almost all dating from the prezoning 
period, are scattered singly and in groups in noncom- 
mercial districts throughout the Area. The present 
location of these nonconforming structures is shown in 



drawing No. 19 and the condition of the Area, in this 
respect, when such structures shall have been elimi- 
nated and the present Old York Road shopping center 
relocated on Thirty-ninth Street, is also indicated. 
These nonconforming structures now adversely affect 
the value of neighboring property in many parts of 
Waverly, but since the zoning ordinance does not pro- 
vide for their elimination, return to a proper land-use 
status must await their reconversion, voluntary demoli- 
tion, or destruction. 

Henceforth the residents of the Area as a whole must 
actively cooperate in the rigid enforcement of those 
ordinance provisions which relate to population density 
and land utilization, if the development of future infec- 
tion foci of a similar nature is to be prevented. This, of 
course, can best be accomplished through the medium 
of a watchful and aggressive community organization. 

ZONING ADJUSTMENTS 

The eastern half of block 4049-C, containing approx- 
imately VA acres and bounded by Thirty-fourth Street, 
Old York Road, and Thirty-fifth Street, is now included 
in an area permitting business use. Since there appears 
to be no present or prospective commercial demand for 
this property, its transfer, by ordinance, to a D-40 
classification with a consequent stabilization of values 
and a considerable reduction in the base on which it is 
taxed has been recommended. 

Block 404 9-B, bounded by Thirty-third Street, 
Greenmount Avenue, Thirty-fourth Street, and Old 
York Road, should remain as it now is a wholly com- 
mercial area, so that present nonconforming use else- 
where may be consolidated into a single central shop- 
ping section, as shown in drawing No. 19. 

A comprehensive, long-term program should be devel- 
oped for the purpose of transferring the commercial 
enterprises now segregated along the northern reaches 
of Old York Road a location and a thoroughfare 
wholly unsuited to commercial use to a new location on 
Thirty-ninth Street, near the junction of Ellerslic 
Avenue and Argonne Drive, as also indicated in drawing 
No. 19. 

Drawing No. 20 shows, in greater detail, (a) the area 
on lower Greenmount Avenue which is at present zoned 
for commercial use, and (6) proposed building lines and 
the area to which the project planning department has 
recommended business hereafter be restricted. 

Approval of the Commission on City Planning will, 
of course, be a necessary precedent to any legislation de- 
signed to readjust present zoning regulations. In this 
connection, it is interesting to note that the Commission 
is at this time considering the return, to a "residential- 
only" status, of several hundred acres elsewhere in the 
city, which are now zoned for business. 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



43 



COMMERCIAL ZONING 
RESTRICTIONS 




RECOMMENDED 



Drawing No. 19 



WAVERLYA STUDY IN 



PRESENT 




RECOMMENDED 




] COMMERCIAL 
RESIDENTIAL 



80 families per acre 

RESIDENTIAL 

40 families per acre 



LAND USE AND BUILDING LINE 
RESTRICTIONS 



Drawing No. 20 




NEIG HBORHOOD CONSER VA TION 



45 



Street Adjustments 



IRREGULAR STREET PATTERN 

As the result of the informal and opportunistic 
method of their development, Wavcrly's streets are 
often too narrow, jog here and dead-end there, angle and 
turn, run for a block and are forever lost, or die at one 
point to begin again farther on; general street widths 
are far from uniform and even change from point to 
point on the same street; blocks are irregularly shaped 
and considerable areas are without adequate street 
access. 

Old York Road, one of the first streets on which resi- 
dential construction was undertaken, for example, is 
narrow, varies in width from point to point, has mean- 
ingless curves and directional changes, an irregular 
block pattern, fantastically shaped lots, poor alinemcnt, 
bad structural spacing and was evidently developed 
quite by accident, as have been so many other country 
roads. 

Frisby Street begins at Thirty-third Street, runs a 
half block and apparently ends at an alley crossing; 
appears again at Thirty-fifth Street, continues for a 
few blocks and disappears at Chestnut Hill Avenue; 
comes to life once more at Thirty-ninth Street, runs for 
a block and finally dies. 

Most of these early streets are thus subject to grave 
irregularities and deficiencies. As the later extension 
of Venable Avenue, Thirty-fourth Street, and Thirty- 
fifth Street became necessary, with the growth of the 
community, they too struck out at odd angles, some- 
times with interrupted or dead ends but with some 
slight regard of a more orderly development, indicating 
a slow awakening to the necessity for longer range plan- 
ning. When, subsequent to the war, large-scale, brick 
row-house development began in the eastern portion of 
the Area, reasonably orderly and scientific but, un- 
fortunately, unrelated street patterns were adopted. 

None of the factors which now govern district and 
city street planning was considered in the early devel- 
opment of Waverly's thoroughfares. The entire terri- 
tory between Thirty-third Street on the south, Forty- 
second Street on the north, Greenmount Avenue on the 
west and Ellerslie Avenue and Argonne Drive on the 
east, was therefore carefully studied, during the Project 



planning period, for the purpose of working out prac- 
tical proposals for more orderly street arrangement 
within practical limitations and, likewise, for better 
land use, more uniform building lines and the eventual 
elimination of noncon forming land utilization. The 
results of these studies were embodied in the Waverly 
Master Plan and have been informally presented to tho 
Baltimore Commission on City Planning, with the rec- 
ommendation that they be included in its general plan 
study of the entire city of Baltimore, in due course to 
be carried out under its jurisdiction in accordance with 
the City Council's Ordinance No. 1429, approved by 
vote of the people of Baltimore on May 5, 1939. 

RECOMMENDED CHANGES 

Tlie street adjustment proposals which have been 
incorporated in the Waverly Master Plan include the 
following: 

A. New streets. Land acquisition, concrete paving, 
curbs, gutters, sidewalks, necessary utilities, and 
street openings. 

Project No. 1. Dumbarton Avenue extended from 
Ellerslie due north to a block 
above Belgian Avenue. 

2. Ellerslie Avenue to be opened 

and improved from Belgian 
Avenue to Argonne Drive. 

3. East Thirty-seventh Street to be 

extended from Old York Road 
to Greenmount Avenue. 

4. Frisby Street to be opened up 

from Thirty-third to Belgian 
Avenue. 

B. Paving. Concrete paving, curbs, gutters, and 
sidewalks. 

Project No. 1. Venable Avenue from Old York 
Road to Westerwald Avenue. 

2. Chestnut Hill Avenue from Old 

York Road to Frisby Street. 

3. Wyanoke Avenue from Old York 

Road to intersection of Wilsby 
Street. 



46 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 



STREET PLAN OF 
WAVERLY AREA 




RECOMMENDED 



Drawing No. 2) 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



47 



4. Dumbarton Avenue from alley 

east of Wilsby to Ellerslie Ave- 
nue. 

5. Belgian Avenue, east Forty-first 

Street and Cator Avenue 150 
feet east on each street. 

C. Conversions. Closing street to vehicular traffic, 
and converting street bed to park space. 

Project No. 1. Wilsby Avenue from Cator to 

Wyanoke Avenue. 

2. Lowndes Avenue from Wyanoke 
to Argonne Drive 

D. Closings. Complete closing to provide better 
utilization of land. 

Project No. 1. Wester wald Avenue from Thirty- 
fourth to Thirty-fifth Streets. 

2. Tinges Lane from Thirty -fourth 

to Vcnable Avenue. 

3. Argonne Drive from Old York 

Road to Ellerslie. 

4. Belgian, east Forty-first Street and 

Cator Avenue from point 150 
feet east toward Alameda Ave- 
nue. 

5. Central Avenue from Cator to 

new section of Dumbarton Ave- 
nue. 

Certain other desirable adjustments, such as the 
widening of Old York Road and Greenmount Avenue, 
have been omitted from these recommendations. It is 
believed, however, that the acceptance by the commu- 
nity of the improvements scheduled above, will inspire 
further modifications, such, for instance, as the reloca- 
tion of present building lines, in order to control future 
construction on Old York Road and Greenmount Ave- 
nue, in anticipation of the eventual widening of these 
thoroughfares, Their width could thus be increased 
progressively, over a considerable period of time, at a 
comparatively low cost, following the plan which has 
been so successfully adopted for that purpose by many 
European cities. 

Drawing No. 21 on the preceding page depicts (lie 
present street pattern of Waverly and the recommended 
alterations in that pattern. 

COST 

The unit prices used for estimating street and utility 
costs were obtained from the city engineer's office in 
Baltimore. Land acquisition cost is based on the pres- 
ent assessed value of the entire area of each lot affected 
by the various improvements. 

The cost of all street and utility improvements rec- 
ommended for the Area is estimated as follows: 



New streets $192,605 

Paving.. 33,196 

Conversions 6,000 

Closings 3^200 






Total... $235,001 

PAYMENT 

Methods by which it is suggested the city of Balti- 
more can pay for the above improvements include: 

1. Special paving tax. The frontage serviced by this 
improvement is approximately 64,000 lineal feet. A 
special tax of $0.15 per foot a year would yield an annual 
income of $9,600. A 25-year bond issue would cover 
the improvements. 

2. Ordinance No. 789. In the ordinance the city of 
Baltimore would pay one-third of the costs and the 
individual owners the remaining two-thirds. 

Assessed value of entire Area, $5,878,073. 
Potential annual income from the Area based on 
present tax rate of $2.65 per $100, $155,800. 



AREA OCCUPIED 

The area now occupied by streets and alleys 
Waverly has been estimated at 28 percent of the total 
district. The recommended adjustments described 
above will increase that area by approximately 5 
percent. 

Drawing No. 22 comprises two maps, one showing 
the present structural and street plan of the Area, the 
other showing the structures and streets as developed 
in the Master Plan. 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION, JUSTIFICATION, 
AND ESTIMATE 

A detailed description, justification, and cost estimate 
of street opening, widening, paving, conversion, and 
closing appears at the end of this report as Appendix 
D. A brief study of the physical and economic aspects 
of two of these proposed street readjustments will 
suffice here to indicate the benefits which may be 
expected to flow fro:n that phase of the project as a 
whole. 

VENABLE AVENUE 

The development of Venable Avenue, eastward from 
Greenmount, is an example of the informal type of 
Waverly's street growth. That thoroughfare extended 
itself as fast as building operations proceeded eastward. 
When construction on Venable Avenue ceased, as it 
did about the year 1923, the street halted opposite the 
last house built and somewhere thereabouts faded out in 
a dead end, at an indeterminate point, in an unplatted 
area. In considerable measure, these uninspiring street 



48 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 



STREET AND 
STRUCTURAL PLAN 

WAVERLY AREA 



&*gfaa fS^^^f^' 

^S^iv/j*^ ''"-. 

UT-Hr -* ''! ""'" '* ' ** S? 
&SP 1 .' ~ "-. iw> -*-- 1* 




RECOMMENDED 



Drawing No. 22 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



49 



conditions are reflected in the excessive functional and 
economic deterioration of the old frame houses on the 
north side of Venable Avenue. 

If the recommendations of the Master Plan are carried 
out, the cost of reconditioning these properties will be 
recaptured and, in addition, an amount considerably in 
excess of this expenditure will be added to their value. 
At least a portion of this increase is attributable to the 
proposed street adjustments. The same approximate 
ratio should hold in like neighborhoods elsewhere in the 
district, when similar improvements are completed. 

Caught in the transition from frame to brick con- 
struction, situated on a dead-end street, and lying 
opposite dwellings which are subject to excessive 
depreciation, the value of a considerable tract of vacant 
property on the south side of Venable Avenue, having 
a frontage of 377 feet, has likewise been unduly de- 
pressed. Completion of the proposed street revisions 
will serve to increase the value of this (at present 
virtually unmarketable) vacant frontage, not only by 
providing it with better traffic circulation but also 
because improved maintenance of homes which lie op- 
posite this vacant tract will be of direct benefit to it. 



Table No. 21 

STRUCTURAL RECONDITIONING 

(Venablc Avenue, block 40f>3, land and structures) 




Street No. 


Value 


En- 
hance- 
ment 


Cost 


Increase over 
cost 


Before 


After 


Amount 


Per- 
cent 


600.. .. 
602 
604 


$3, 500 
3,600 
3. 500 
3,500 
3,350 
3,200 
3,200 
2,800 
3,000 
3,500 
3,250 


$4, 500 
4,250 
4,250 
4,000 
4,000 
3,700 
3, 800 
3,700 
3,800 
4, 200 
4,000 


$1, 000 
650 
750 
500 
650 
500 
600 
900 
800 
700 
750 


$685 
235 
407 
292 
309 
267 
338 
597 
534 
335 
450 


$315 
415 
343 
208 
341 
233 
262 
303 
266 
365 
300 


46 
134 
85 
71 
110 
124 
77 
51 
50 
109 
66 


606 
608 


610 


612 


614 


till 1 , 
618 ' 


620 





Drawing No, 23 



RECOMMENDED STREET AND 
ALLEY IMPROVEMENTS 






KEY 

l:i:iii!!:iil New streets 
I I New alleys 

Street closings 




Southern section of Waverly 




50 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 



Table No. 22 

EFFECT ON VACANT FRONTAGE 
(377 feet on Venable Avenue corner of Old York Road) 



Appraised value, upon completion of street im- 
provements and structural reconditioning $8, 000 

Appraised present market value $4,000 

Estimated cost of street improvements, etc. 1, 600 



Total 5,600 



Estimated value increase $2,400 



Table No. 23 

EFFECT ON VACANT FRONTAGE 
(Lot 85 south side of proposed extension on Venable Avenue) 



Appraised value, upon completion of street im- 
provements and structural reconditioning $6, 700 

Appraised present market value $2, 500 

Estimated cost of street improvements, etc_ 1, 200 



Total 3,700 



Estimated value increase $3, 000 



FRISBY STREET 

After it has proceeded northward for a short half 
block, Frisby Street reaches a stub end and temporarily 
dies at the alley line north of Thirty-third Street. 
Just beyond its apparent terminus is a vacant area, 
designated as lot 85, embracing approximately 17,500 
square feet of land which is now wholly without street 
access and is therefore not susceptible to normal resi- 
dential improvement. The extension of Frisby Street 
and of the western section of Venable Avenue, as pro- 
posed, will open to building construction approxi- 
mately 1,150 lineal feet of new street frontage in that 
block and adjacent areas and should materially increase 
the present value of this property. 

Drawing No. 23 sets out in greater detail a typical 
example of the street and alley adjustments which have 
been recommended in the Master Plan. 

While the primary purpose of the Waverly conserva- 
tion project is the stabilization of social and economic 



values in the Area, the fact that, by joining in it, home 
owners will frequently enhance the value of their in- 
vestments, should further stimulate their interest and 
cooperation . 

DIVISIONAL STUDY 

Waverly, as a whole, presents a confused structural 
and economic pattern, hi which varying building types, 
materials, ages, uses, placements, coverages, etc., mingle 
indiscriminately. Some phases of its general trend are 
therefore difficult to classify. So that during the survey 
and planning phase of the program certain related 
factors could be segregated, grouped and analyzed more 
accurately than would have been possible if the entire 
Area had been used as the observation unit, Waverly 
was broken down for economic study into six broadly 
similar districts, designated by letters from A to F. 
The analysis of one of these sections District A 
appears hereafter as Appendix A. 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



51 



Rehabilitation Financing 



In developing an urban residential conservation pro- 
gram, it is usually found that those properties which 
need little or no repair and rehabilitation and which, 
therefore, do not threaten neighborhood economic and 
social standards are owned by persons who are finan- 
cially able to complete the necessary improvements with 
little or no assistance. Conversely, those properties 
which most need repair, modernization, and embellish- 
ment and which therefore cannot be omitted from a 
general stabilization program without seriously injuring 
it are generally owned by those who most need help 
in financing improvement cbsts. 

If the Waverly conservation project is to be carried 
through substantially as it is set up in the Master Plan, 
the cost of the recommended home improvements 
must, in many cases, be supplied through a financing 
medium easily and cheaply available to those property 
owners who, though willing to join in the program, 



are unable to advance the cost of their contemplated 
repairs and rehabilitation. That these owners might 
have definite assurance of such improvement loans, an 
examination of possible loan sources was made con- 
currently with the field survey. This examination 
made evident the fact that eligible borrowers will have 
little or no difficulty in securing necessary repair and 
reconditioning loans (a) from first-mortgage lenders on 
properties which are at present unencumbered; (6) 
from financial institutions which are willing to increase 
the amount of their existing first-mortgages on Waverly 
homes; and (c) from local lending institutions -includ- 
ing commercial banks, savings and loan associations 
and character-loan banks many of which now actively 
solicit repair loans insured under Title I of the National 
Housing Act. 

A detailed review of the products of this survey 
appears as Appendix B at the end of this report. 



52 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 



Conclusions 



NEIGHBORHOOD DECLINE THROUGH MOVE- 
MENT TOWARD THE URBAN RIM 

The structural, economic, and social life cycle 
through which the average American residential com- 
munity passes begins with its birth in response to a 
demand for additional or more modern housing. It 
then enjoys a life of normal use, often covering a con- 
siderable number of years, but gradually obsolescence 
accelerates, neighborhood maintenance is somewhat 
neglected and those families which are economically 
able to do so begin to move further out toward the 
urban rim. 

Undesirable residents move into the neighborhood 
when the first of its homes is permitted to fall below 
the standard of maintenance set by adjoining properties 
and is consequently rented or sold at a price below 
that of the general community level. Though more 
or less physically depreciated, this dwelling will usually 
provide its new occupants with accommodations that 
are at least as good as those out of which they have 
just moved and by reason of their previous environ- 
ment and present economic status they will generally 
continue to be satisfied with a maintenance standard 
below that of the balance of the neighborhood. Thus 
a definite blight infection spot is established. 

As the structural maintenance of the neighborhood 
is further neglected, the process of decay continues, 
investment and rent values fall and blight increases, 
until finally the area emerges as a recognizable city 
slum, in which values reflect a tremendous financial 
loss, dwellings have become unfit for decent human 
habitation, dilapidation, and crime flourish, and only 
complete demolition remains as the solution of the 
structural though not of the social and economic 
problem. 

NEIGHBORHOOD DECLINE THROUGH INDUS- 
TRIAL DECENTRALIZATION 

While it is impossible at any given time to measure 
the exact damage, to older urban residential communi- 
ties like Waverly, which is resulting from the growth 
of rural industrial-residential centers, the possible long 

NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



term consequence of the continued development of 
these areas is a subject which warrants careful collateral 
consideration in any study of the cause, effect and 
treatment of undesirable neighborhood infiltration 
and decay. 

The term "decentralization of industry" connotes 
the movement of manufacturing operations away from 
areas of high land cost, high taxes, and congested 
employee living conditions, into rural districts where 
land costs and taxes are low, housing is improved, and 
unit living areas are comparatively spacious. A trend 
toward industrial decentralization has been gathering 
considerable momentum in Baltimore during recent 
years, and if it makes real headway when industry 
enters its next period of major replanning and rebuild- 
ing, another important factor will be added to the 
problem of urban blight infection and slum develop- 
ment. 

Two examples of decentralization of this type are 
afforded by a model village project in Harford County, 
Md., designed by a large industrial corporation to 
house 10,000 of its employees, and by a garden city 
development, in Baltimore County, projected by 
another manufacturing company, also to provide living 
quarters for its 10,000 workers. Modern in all respects, 
these developments suggest a picture of happy families, 
living in a healthful environment, at a comparatively 
low rental cost, amid playgrounds, trees, and nearby 
open country spaces, while indoors are sunlight, space, 
and the latest type of bathroom and electrical kitchen 
equipment. 

From both a social and an investment standpoint, 
these projects appear to be sound, but their portent to the 
home owners and taxpayers of the city of Baltimore 
and of the Waverly area is also a consideration of 
definite importance. 

That city is the labor center from which these com- 
panies will largely obtain their employees. Thus, some 
20,000 families, most of whom now occupy Baltimore 
dwellings and patronize Baltimore merchants, utilities, 
and theaters, will be drawn into adjacent and largely 
autonomous areas. These withdrawals will throw some 
thousands of urban dwelling units on the market. 
Since the population of the city is now nearly station- 

53 



ary, the re-rental of those units which are situated in the 
more desirable districts will be at least slow. It is 
from the older and more modest residential sections, 
however, that the labor and clerical supply for these 
two industries will largely come and, since many of 
these neighborhoods are already actually losing popula- 
tion, the probability of the total absorption of the 
dwellings thus vacated is rather remote. 

An abnormal vacancy ratio is the certain forerunner 
of that economic decline which already rests heavily 
upon many sections within the old city limits. Shrink- 
ing property values mean a shriveling tax base, without 
a comparable reduction hi the cost of city government. 
Streets, water supply, sewers, and other municipal ser- 
vices must be maintained, police and fire protection 
provided, the interest on the city's debt for paving, 
water, sewers, etc., paid, and the debt itself liquidated. 
Should any important decentralization movement de- 
velop in the future, those neighborhoods which are un- 
able to carry their fair share of the cost of municipal 
services will tend to grow larger; as they develop, the 
tax burden will be concentrated on increasingly re- 
stricted areas, and the exodus of competent taxpayers 
from the city will be accelerated. 

Commendable as decentralization may be from a 
social standpoint and sound as may be its industrial- 



economic aspects, its cumulative impact on older urban 
residential areas like Waverly would be highly unfortu- 
nate, should the movement hereafter acquire real mo- 
mentum, without compensating developments. 

CONSERVATION THROUGH COOPERATION 

That ultimate social, economic, and structural decay, 
requiring a major surgical operation in the form of com- 
plete demolition, need not necessarily be the last chapter 
in the history of every urban residential community 
and that, on the contrary, a coordinated and sustained 
Neighborhood Conservation Program will usually pro- 
vide a practical preventive remedy for community corro- 
sion is so comparatively novel a tenet that little com- 
petent information and less literature on the subject 
existed prior to the inauguration of the project with 
which this report is concerned. 

To say that if any given group of initially sound homes 
is not kept repaired it will eventually become unfit for 
human habitation is to state a platitude. It is like- 
wise obvious that, if one dwelling in this group had been 
restored to a sound condition before all reached slum 
status, complete community disintegration would in 
some measure have been retarded. And it follows that 
neighborhood blight can be halted and probably re- 






INFLUENCE OF DEPRECIATED AREAS 



KEY 

Depreciation due to age, lack of maintenance, 
and unrestricted land use. 



Potential blight clue to age and adjacent depres- 
sion. 




Southern section of Waverly 




Drawing No. 24 






54 



WAVERLY A STUDY 






versed if, before community decline advances too far, 
all of the homes in the group are made suitable for nor- 
mal use and are there maintained. 

The potential structural life of the average small 
home is usually far beyond that which has heretofore 
been ascribed to it. With proper maintenance, that 
life can be extended almost indefinitely. If, at com- 
paratively long intervals and at relatively slight ex- 
pense equipment is also modernized, the unimpaired 
economic and social life of the neighborhood can simi- 
larly be prolonged. To halt the functional obsoles- 
cence and physical decay of the individual units which 
constitute a residential community, before corrosion 
and undesirable infiltration have too far advanced, is 
therefore to indefinitely delay the eventual disappear- 
ance of that community as an urban asset. 

Once blight and undesirable infiltration are under 
way, they are increasingly difficult to control through 
the uncorrelated efforts of individual property owners. 
Only coordinated action, pursuant to a carefully pre- 
pared and technically sound plan, either by a consider- 
able group of owners acting jointly or by a single owner 
or agent in control of an extended group of housing 
units, will assure the restoration of those former stand- 
ards of maintenance which are necessary if decline in 
rental and sales values and the infiltration of a pro- 
gressively undesirable type of occupant is to be halted. 

Drawing No. 24 illustrates the influence of a depre- 
ciated neighborhood on adjacent areas. 

INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITY 

Institutional lenders on real estate security, who 
should be particularly alert to halt declining real prop- 
erty values, too often appear as the owners of depre- 
ciated or substandard structures which threaten to 
infect adjacent home neighborhoods. Reluctance to 
restore these properties to the community standard is 
usually due to the fact that their new owners have 
already taken considerable losses on foreclosed mort- 
gages and hesitate to invest more money in protecting 
them. In these cases, careful consideration should be 
given to the further loss which will result from contin- 
ued neglect on the one hand, and to the worth-while 
returns which additional protective investment might 
yield on the other, and of at least equal importance 
to the obligation which these lenders owe to the affected 
communities. 

If an institution which owns several properties in a 
district, allows even one of them to deteriorate struc- 
turally, it risks far more than the cost of a single recon- 
ditioning job. To allow a number of these dwellings 
to remain in poor condition or to depreciate further 
is virtually to abandon the total original investment. 
Indiscriminate outlays for reconditioning, beyond the 
standard of the immediate neighborhood, cannot be 



wholly recaptured and, of course, are not advocated. 
But certainly no owner either institutional or pri- 
vate is warranted in going to the other extreme, by 
permitting the gradual wastage of whatever investment 
value the structure may still retain. In part, rental 
and sales levels depend on the quality of the property 
which can be offered to the prospective tenant or pur- 
chaser. Rarely, if ever, will the resulting increase in 
rent or selling price fail to justify the cost of reasonable 
repairs to a depreciated home in a sound neighborhood. 
Meriting consideration, also, is the matter of public 
responsibility and goodwill always important to insti- 
tutions which are engaged in home financing, either as 
a primary or a secondary function. Every dwelling 
which is permitted to decline structurally menaces the 
real estate which surrounds it, and institutions which fail 
to meet their obvious civic obligations, by allowing the 
properties they have acquired to become neighborhood 
eyesores and to threaten the stability of adjacent home 
investment, cannot hope to maintain that good will 
which is of such direct value to them. 

IDEAL TEST CONDITIONS 

In no section of Baltimore is there an area better suited 
than Waverly to test the essential soundness of a con- 
servation program such as that which is described in 
this report. A community of single-family homes, 
predominantly owner occupied, by no means so far 
deteriorated that extraordinary effort will be necessary 
to halt its downward trend, Waverly has yet declined 
sufficiently to make definite criteria of group decay 
clearly discernible. Somewhat depressed within and 
definitely menaced from without but in no way a 
generally blighted area its location, prevailing land 
use, structural character and general condition make 
its preservation highly desirable and its choice, as the 
setting for an experimental study in scientific neighbor- 
hood conservation, almost ideal. 

DOMINANT FACTORS 

The great majority of the 1,610 residential structures 
in Waverly arc well located, well maintained and pro- 
vide desirable homes. Considerable pride of ownership 
is apparent, social and cultural activities arc established 
and, for the present at least, desirable neighbors are 
generally assured. 

Tax delinquency, both in terms of structural units 
and in terms of the total levy, is less in Waverly than 
in residential Baltimore as a whole. Mortgage ratios, 
possibly due to the prevalence of the ground lease 
system, are highly favorable. Low also, for a neigh- 
borhood of its type, are the Area's ratio of tenant-occu- 
pied to owner-occupied homes and its percentage of 
vacant dwellings. Relatively infrequent sales and long 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSER VA TION 



55 



Table No. 24 
DOMINANT FACTORS IN WAVERLY 



Item 



Favorable 



Unfavorable 



SOCIAL 



Race .. 
Health 



Overcrowding 

Evidence at owner- 
ship pride. 



All white 

Slightly above Baltimore 
average. 

None -- 

Generally present 



Absent in areas needinc 
rehabilitation. 



ECONOMIC 



Income - No destitution weekly 4 out of 7,000 receiving 

average $30 to $50. general public assist- 

ance. 

Mortgages- .- Low ratio mortgaged to 

unmortgaged. 

Foreclosures Below national average 

H. O. L. C. mortgage --- Above national average. 

delinquence. 

Tax delinquence.-- Better than Baltimore aver- 
age. 

NEIGHBORHOOD 

1'opulation density . No overcrowding 

Areas of deterioration Several badly deterio- 
rated spots endanger 
whole Area. 

Street pattern. - Not good. 

Street condition Fair average Occasional repairs and 

new pavements needed 

Alley condition - Unsatisfactory. 

Traffic circulation .... Not good. 

Utilities..- Ample provision 

Educational facilities do 

Recreational arens - Inadequate provision. 

Transportation Ample provision 

Contiguous neigh- High-class residential on A developed slum virtu- 
borhoods. east, north, west. ally touches southern 

border. 

STRUCTURAL 

Type 98.84 percent residential 

Placement -- Satisfactory in large new Numerous examples of 

areas. bad spacing and line. 

Demolition One recommended 

Physical condition - 1.510 need no or minor re- 100 need major recondi- 

pairs; basic condition good. I tioning. 

Functional condition Mixed 92V^ percent ade- Mixed 7H percent need 

quate for their type and mechanical and similar 

kind. modernization. 

Conformance . - Scattered nonconfonr.ing 

structures. 

Construction 8S percent brick, largely 15 percent frame, largely 

modern. old. 

Age 55 percent under 25 years - 45 percent over 25 years. 

OCCUPANCY 

Type . - Owner 80 percent, tenant 20 

percent. 

For rent- - 'LOW ratio for each... 

For sale 

Rent scale Slightly above comparative 

areas in Baltimore. 
Turn-over-- Average around once in 20 

years. 

Vacancies - Low ratio--!. 2 percent- 

Overhang of unsold Low ratio to total number of 
houses. structures. 



con- 



continued owner and tenant occupancy indicate a con- 
siderable degree of satisfaction with general neighbor- 
hood surroundings. 

Health conditions appear satisfactory and the survey 
developed no evidence of overcrowding or harmful 
doubling-up. Adequate primary, secondary and col- 
legiate educational facilities are provided within or near 
the Area. The usual essential utilities and public pro- 
tection are available to its residents, transportation is 
excellent and amusement and shopping centers are 
easily accessible. 

Playground provision is inadequate although this 
deficiency is, in a measure, corrected for older children 
and adults by large, not too distant, open spaces to the 
east. Street pavement is in generally good condition, 
but the general street pattern is extremely bad, street 
widths are unreasonably restricted and traffic circu- 
lation is unduly impeded. 

The summary of favorable and unfavorable com- 
munity factors, which appears as table No. 24, quite 
clearly establishes Waverly's social, economic, and 
structural position. 












COMPARISON WITH REAL PROPERTY INVEN- 
TORY SURVEY FINDINGS 






The comparison, shown in table No. 25, of some of 
the important factors present in Waverly, with similar 
national data disclosed by the Works Progress Admin- 
istration's "Real Property Inventory" survey covering 
7,651,896 of the 17,372,524 urban dwellings in the 
United States, is significant. 6 

Running water is everywhere available to Waverly 
residents. All homes in the Area are equipped with 
flush-type sanitary facilities, in comparison with 68 
percent so equipped in the southeast and 85 percent 
nationally. All Waverly residences have stationary 
bathtub installations some, of course, obsolete as 
ngainst 60 percent similarly equipped in the south- 
eastern portion of the United States and a general 
national average of 80 percent. Central heating i: 
installed in 98 percent of the homes in Waverly, as 
compared with a national urban average of 60 percent. 

Less than 6 percent of Waverly's residential struc- 
tures need major repair, while 16 percent is the average 
for the Nation. Over 40 percent of the tenants in 
the Area have occupied the same dwellings for varying 
periods exceeding 5 years, as compared with an 18- 
percent national record for similar occupancy. Only 
13 percent of Waverly's tenant population, on the 
other hand, has lived in its present quarters for less 
than 1 year, contrasted with a national figure of 5 
percent for occupancy of 1 year or less. Room averages 

1 The Real Property Inventory survey covers the triennial period ending with 1936 
but this 3-year lag does not invalidate the comparisons in table No. 25 because of the 
comparatively static nature of the items included In it. 



56 



A STUDY IN 



in the Waverly district exceed one for each occupant; 
26 percent of the dwellings in the southeast and 17 
percent throughout the Nation provide less than one 
room per person. There is virtually no record of 
doubling up in Waverly; in the southeast 9 percent 
and nationally 5 percent of the residential units in 
urban centers house more than one family. Less than 
40 percent of the homes in the Area are mortgaged, as 
against more than 55 percent of the urban, single- 
family, owner-occupied dwellings throughout the 
country so encumbered. 



Table No. 25 

COMPARISON WITH REAL PROPERTY 
INVENTORY AVERAGES 
(Outside Xew York City) 


Item 


Percentage 


National 
average 


South- 
eastern 
United 
States 


Waverly 


Lack running-water con- 
nections __ 


5 
4 
19 
15 

20 
40 
39 
24 
30 
23 
23 
39 

45 
16 
7 
12 
81 
57 
25 
18 

17 
5 
56 


15 
25 
50 
32 

40 
76 
18 
14 
37 
25 
24 
31 

46 
23 
10 
15 
75 
62 
22 
16 

26 
9 
49 








2 
75 
26 
20 
52 
2 
42 

52 
6 
3 
8 
88 
13 
46 
41 



39 


Lack electric - lighting 
connections 


Lack gas-cooking con- 
nections _ 


Lack private flush toi- 
lets 


Lack private baths and 
showers . . 


Lack central heating 
Masonry construction 
Constructed before 1894, 
Constructed 1 895-1 91 4. _ 
Constructed 1915-24 
Constructed 1925-35.. 
Condition good 


Condition need some 
repairs _ 


Condition need major 
repairs 


Occupancy owner less 
than 2 years 


Occupancy owner 2-5 
years 


Occupancy owner over 
5 years 


Occupancy tenant less 
than year 


Occupancy tenant 2-5 
vears 


Occupancy tenant over 
5 years 


More than 1 person per 
room. 


Extra families in unit 
Mortgaged 





INFECTION 

The useful life of the community is definitely threat- 
ened, however, by (1) the adverse influence of a few 
scattered blocks, in which there are houses that have 
been permitted to degenerate below the level of normal 
usefulness and now constitute definite sources of blight 
contagion; by (2) the presence of 26 scattered converted 
residential structures, now being used also for noncon- 
forming commercial purposes, which likewise act as 
infection foci; and by (3) the pressure of the large sub- 
standard area which extends from the northern border 
of the city's downtown business district almost to the 
southern boundary of Waverly. 

DOWNWARD TREND OBSCURED 

While the Area contains many old homes half of its 
structures exceed 25 years and some exceed 50 years in 
age in various states of repair, it also includes block 
after block of fine, modern residences, largely of the 
brick row type, erected since the war, well built, well 
maintained, and, of their kind, excellent in architec- 
tural and functional design. By lowering the average 
structural age within the Area and by raising its average 
rating for structural condition, these more modern 
homes have obscured Waverly's gradual but definitely 
downward tendency and have given its residents a sense 
of security which actual and potential community trends 
do not warrant. Furthermore, while these compara- 
tively new brick houses have served to increase average 
values in their several neighborhoods, their own average 
has been definitely depressed by the menace of contigu- 
ous depreciated frame construction. 

The adverse influence of these spots of incipient but 
definite infection is quite strikingly reflected in the 
downward assessment trend of southern Waverly 
(table No. 29, page 72) , contrary to the upward move- 
ment of commercial property assessment within the same 
area and of equivalent residential assessment elsewhere 
in Baltimore. In this respect, the comparatively new 
row-house groups have suffered even more severely 
than have the old detached structures, thus emphasiz- 
ing the fact that the owners of both types are definitely 
concerned with the problem of community depreciation 
and renovation. 

CROSS-CURRENTS 

As the field survey and subsequent study of the Area 
advanced, indices of community vigor and evidences of 
community decline appeared from time to time and 
almost as quickly disappeared. Patterns frequently 
began to take form only at once to fade out again. By 
the time the last items were added to the over-all chart, 
it had become apparent that the trends and relation- 



NEIGHRORHOOD CONSERVATION 



57 



ships within the Area are frequently obscure and are 
sometimes contradictory. 

These confused cross-currents permitted but one 
conclusion. The tide of neighborhood disintegration 
in Waverly has only just begun to set but, unless 
prompt measures are taken to halt its present compara- 
tively gentle movement, it will presently gather a 
momentum that will be increasingly difficult, and finally 
impossible, to control. 

The prompt reconditioning of every home in need of 
minor repair, the immediate restoration of every deteri- 
orated house to a definite Area standard and the subse- 
quent maintenance of all structures at that standard, 
is the minimum requirement for successful resistance 
to the slow and relatively obscure disease that LOW 
threatens the future social and economic integrity of 
Waverly. 

SURVEY INFLUENCE 

Preventive measures can be most effectively applied, 
of course, before neighborhood corrosion first begins 
actually to show itself, Thus seemingly early in its 
life cycle, however, the average owner is unwilling to 
believe that his home may already be involved in an 
obscure process of community decline. At the time, 
therefore, when blight might most easily, positively and 
inexpensively be checked in the individual structure and 
in the neighborhood as a whole, it is relatively difficult 
to enlist his cooperation in a program for the control of 
what appears to him to be, at worst, only a potential 
and perhaps phantom danger. 

During the early progress of the survey, the average 
Waverly resident, in turn, was resistant to what he 
interpreted as governmental interference in matters of 
personal and local concern; was reluctant to recognize 
the threat, to him personally, of progressive neighbor- 
hood disintegration; was 'prone to overemphasize 
governmental liability, and inclined to underrate his 
own responsibility, for such organized protection as his 
home might need; and, finally, was slow to accept the 
thesis that the coordinated effort of all home owners 
in the Area is the prime essential to any successful effort 
to resist community disintegration. Gradually, how- 
ever, as the survey progressed and planning methods 
and objectives became clearer, he awakened to the fact 
that he has an existing personal problem in neighbor- 
hood stabilization and that the success with which that 
problem is finally met will depend directly on the 
measure of individual cooperation which he and his 
neighbors give to its solution. 

The Waverly field survey covered the 5-month period 
between March 15 and August 15, 1939. A campaign 
of education, which included neighborhood meetings, 
newspaper publicity, etc., explaining the program and 
its objectives, immediately followed. This preliminary 
organization work culminated in the incorporation of 
the Waverly Conservation League on June 13, 1940. 







: 



The, volume of repair, reconditioning, remodeling, 
and landscaping which has been completed through- 
out the Area during the past few months even prior 
to the complete mobilization of community effort- 
greatly exceeds that for any like period in recent years. 
Two "before-and-after" examples of such post-survej 
rehabilitation appear in drawing No. 25. 

The old junk yard the removal of which wa 
ineffectively ordered by the city some years ago and 
the unsightly frame tabernacle, which long defaced 
the northwest corner of Venable Avenue and Old 
York Road, have recently been removed and the prop- 
erty landscaped and paved for parking lot purposes. 
This treatment was recommended in the Waverly 
Master Plan and is shown on drawing No. 14 as step 
No. 1 in the progressive improvement of that property. 

Row-house construction has been undertaken on at 
least two tracts adjacent to old residential groups which 
are so depreciated that, unrehabilitated, these groups 
will seriously injure the value and marketability of 
the newly built row houses. 

The first of the series of 12 interior play ares 
recommended in the Master Plan that depicted 
drawing No. 20, page 61 has already been approvec 
by the Baltimore Park Commission. 

The number of Waverly loans repaid in full to the 
Home Owners' Loan Corporation between June 1, 1939 
and June 1, 1940 nearly doubled, while the ratio of 
borrowers in default dropped by more than half. During 
that year the number of "for sale" signs on homes in 
the Area decreased by almost 50 percent and of "for 
rent" signs by over 90 percent. By June 1, 1939, the 
Home Owners' Loan Corporation had sold, all told, 24 
percent of the Waverly properties it had acquired by 
foreclosure during the previous 3-year period; in the 
succeeding twelve months, it disposed of 57 percent of 
the maximum number of Waverly properties on its 
books during that year. This sales record becomes 
important, as an indication of the Conservation Pro- 
gram's influence and inspiration, when the Corpora- 
tion's percentages of property sales in Waverly, in 
Maryland, and in Region 2A, at the beginning and at 
the end of that period, are compared: 



Area 



Waverly 

State of Maryland 

Region 2A (Maryland, Delaware, Pennsyl- 
vania, Virginia and District of Columbia).- 



Sales Sales 

3 years 1 year 

prior to ending 

June 1, June 1, 

1939 1940 

(Percent) (Percent) 

24 57 

37 34 






39 



45 



In considerable measure at least, the unusual repair 
and construction activity and noteworthy repayment 
and sales record, which are in part described above, 
may be attributed to a quickened interest in mainte- 
nance and embellishment directly aroused by the field 
survey, and to a growing confidence that the Waverly 



58 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 



EXAMPLES OF 1940 REHABILITATION 




AFTER 




AFTER 



Drawing No. 25 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



59 



Conservation Program will exert a permanently stabiliz- 
ing influence on values and conditions in the district. 

ZONING ADJUSTMENT 

The underlying pvirpose of urban zoning is to classify 
and segregate residential, commercial, and industrial 
areas; control height, structural density, placement, 
type, and relative land coverage; provide greater pro- 
tection against smoke, noise, dust, and other city 
annoyances; assure adequate sunlight, air, open spaces, 
and recreational areas; promote better regulation of 
traffic and transportation; and, in general, assure a 
more orderly urban growth. It is now quite generally 
agreed that "overzoning" for multiple family use has 
been a fault common to the usual use-height ordinance, 
whether designed for urban or suburban areas. 

Less generally, however, is it recognized that serious 
overzoning for business purposes has often taken place 
within those districts which warrant the least intensive 
land use and which should, therefore, be reserved for 
one-family residential purposes only. The invasion 
of a residential area by business enterprise, immediately 
and directly affects the character of the neighborhood 
and the stability of home investment in it. When 
industrial and commercial operations, filling stations, 
garages, billboards, etc., first begin to move in, home 
owners, financially able to do so, begin to move out. 
Consequent decay, economic loss, and some degree of 
social impairment invariably precede, by a long period 
of time, any compensating increase in land values, due 
to demand for business use away from the inner core 
of the city. Eventual economic gains are usually con- 
fined to a comparatively limited area and these gains 
are rarely equivalent to the total loss in values through- 
out the much larger affected territory. 

Home owners in older residential districts, not under- 
standing that the mere legal process of zoning for 
business use does not necessarily make their property 
attractive or marketable for that purpose and moved, 
also, by an obscure pride in the ownership of commer- 
cial property have too often successfully pressed for 
the inclusion of their homes within districts zoned for 
business. As the direct result of this mistaken policy, 
considerable areas in every American city have been 
rendered unfit for normal residential use, with no com- 
pensating commercial demand ; their physical trend has 
turned sharply downward; and their economic values 
have been permanently depressed. 

For example, Chicago's zoning law, enacted nearly 20 
years ago in the early stages of a great real-estate boom, 
was designed to protect existing values. Actually, it 
has operated to create a harmful illusion of values that 
never existed. Miles of frontage that could never, by 
the wildest imagining, be used for anything but small 
homes were zoned for multi-story apartment and com- 



mercial buildings. In their zeal to provide sufficient 
sites for million-dollar movie palaces, department 
stores and shops, real-estate owners and operators 
deliberately sabotaged the one element that would 
make such development possible the small homes 
which would house the customers who might support 
these theaters, stores, and shops. Tt has been stated 
that out of Chicago's 211 square miles of territory, 
there are only 6.79 square miles in which a home can 
be built with assurance that the zoning laws will protect 
it from objectionable industrial, commercial or apart- 
ment-house neighbors; that, if all of the property 
zoned for multi-story elevator apartments in that city 
were improved with such structures, they could house 
45,000,000 persons; and that, if all the street frontage 
on which business is permitted, were improved with 
store buildings, there would be one shop for each two 
families. 

OVERZONING IN WAVERLY 

It is highly desirable that overzoning, for both 
multiple residential and business purposes, more 
closely follow demand rather than anticipate it, and 
that, as promptly as possible, past evils of overzoning 
be repaired, both in the interest of orderly city growth 
and the preservation of real-estate values. 

The Waverly field survey developed definite evidence 
of overzoning on Greenmount Avenue between Thirty- 
fifth and Forty-second Streets; on Old York Road be- 
tween Thirty-fourth and Thirty -fifth Streets; and on 
Thirty-third Street between Old York Road and 
Ellcrslie Avenue. The adjustment of the use-height 
classification of these areas and the gradual transfer to 
a more suitable site of the small, improperly located 
commercial group now on Old York Road, are recom- 
mended, with detailed specifications, in the Master 
Plan. 

Elimination of two nonconforming manufacturing 
plants and of 26 nonconforming, converted dwellings, 
now used for both residential and commercial pur- 
poses, must await the reconversion or destruction of 
these structures, since nonconforming use which existed 
when the zoning ordinance was adopted was not abated 
by that legislation. 

STREET PATTERN ADJUSTMENT 

City designing seeks both to fix the broad pattern 
of the urban framework and to coordinate the con- 
stituent neighborhoods within that pattern. Con- 
versely, the neighborhood plan must synchronize with 
the city's design. Formal city planning is by no means 
a novel consideration in America but, until compara- 
tively recently, it has been approached largely as a 
problem in zoning and street pattern design. Today, 



60 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 



PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTERIOR PLAY AREA 
FOR BLOCK NO. 3903-A 

Approved by tne Board of Park Commissioners 



EAST 39IU STREET 




EAST 38IH. STREET 



ESTIMATE 

STREET AREAS CURB PLANTING....) 125.00 

FOUNDATION " ........ 525.00 

SLOPE ........ 56.25 

PLAY AREA GRADING... ...3OO.OO 

PLANTING ............. . 280.00 

TOTAI __________ $ 1,286.25 

ASSESSMENT ON EACH PROPERTY ..... 36.75 



Drawing No. 26 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



61 



however, we are beginning to recognize that urban 
planning involves several techniques and, in more 
complex problems, are calling in specialized service not 
only in street planning, building height restriction, 
land use, and population densities but also in structural 
and landscape architecture, civil, mechanical, and 
electrical engineering, and social service. 

Unlike the modern process of area development, in 
which streets are first located and subsequent struc- 
tural improvements are made to conform to them, the 
early growth of Waverly was unplanned, haphazard, 
and wholly without the restraint of municipal control 
in the location of highways, parkways, sidewalks, and 
building lines. As fast as but no faster than houses 
were constructed during that period, the street pattern 
extended itself as a natural evolutionary process. As 
so frequently happens in old and slowly maturing com- 
munities, the Area therefore assumed an irregular and 
unscientific street pattern, old homes were intermingled 
with newer structures, frame construction kept com- 
pany with brick, and maintenance ranged all the way 
from excellent to poor. 

Gradually, however, new street lay-outs began to 
reflect more modern community standards. Clearly ap- 
parent is a progressive improvement in neighborhood 
planning, which indicates a developing consciousness 
of the necessity for the alinemcnt and proper place- 
ment of the structural components of a residential 
block and for coordination in the arrangement of streets, 
parkways, and alleys. In the period following the 
World War, when the demand for additional housing 
prompted the development of much of the vacant ter- 
ritory on the eastern margin of the Area, reasonably 
orderly street patterns were adopted. The section last 
platted, that along Westerwald and Ellerslie Avenues, 
exhibits a normal street, parkway and alley design, 
uniform building lines, and orderly structural placement. 
Unfortunately, however, only the most obvious needs 
of the small subdivisions platted during the past two 
decades were considered, even at that comparatively 
late date. The broader problem of their relationship 
to adjoining areas was ignored and the opportunity to 
connect new street ends with old, and in other ways to 
improve the over-all Area pattern, was not availed of. 
The resulting imperfections constitute a definite func- 
tional and economic handicap to both the newer and 
;hc older sections of Waverly. While it is now im- 
jossible wholly to correct these imperfections, detailed 
plans for numerous feasible adjustments, which will 
promote freer and safer traffic circulation and better 
land use, were developed during the planning stage of 
the project. 

THE MASTER PLAN 

The equivalent of a surgical operation is not required 
in Waverly; demolition is definitely indicated in the 



62 



case of but one property; general renovation is neither 
necessary nor contemplated; the formula for the suc- 
cessful treatment of the Area's gradually developing 
malady is not costly nor is it dramatic. It is a simple, 
preventive remedy which has aptly been called "organ- 
ized neighborhood housekeeping" and is compounded 
largely of the ingredients "conservation," "street ad- 
justment," and "concerted and continued community 
effort." 

This treatment, as developed in the Master Plan, 
has been divided into two parallel but not necessarily 
integrated parts: 

I'ttrt A. The curly physical restoration by means 
of minor repair and major reconditioning, remodeling, 
modernizing, embellishment and landscaping of all 
depreciated housing within the body of the Area, sub- 
stantially as recommended during the study and plan- 
ning phase of the survey and as briefly described in 
this report, supplemented by continued maintenance 
thereafter, at the level established for the neighborhood. 

Promptly, energetically and generally applied, this 
phase of the Master Plan will restore to health those 
infected spots which now menace the Area as a whole; 
will preserve its present economic and social values; 
will automatically provide it with an effective defense 
against future objectionable economic, social, and 
structural encroachments from the south; will retain 
it as an important city and State tax base; will safe- 
guard the utility, school and street investments which 
the city has made within its borders; and will protect 
the residential neighborhoods contiguous to it on the 
north, east and west from subsequent infection. 

Part B. The adjustment of zoning regulations and 
street patterns, as a parallel but separate program, re- 
quiring confirmation by the residents of the Area and 
concurrence by the city, and therefore development 
over a considerable period of time. This part of the 
recommended program includes amendments to use- 
height restrictions as defined in the present zoning 
ordinance; improvement of street lighting; increase in 
playground facilities; the gradual elimination of non- 
conforming structures; street widening by condemna- 
tion; progressive street widening, which starts with the 
establishment of new building lines and slowly advances 
with the gradual voluntary demolition of old and the 
construction of new buildings; and such street openings, 
closings, paving and adjustments as are included in a 
technical recommendation, with alternate solutions, 
which has been submitted by the project planning de- 
partment to the Baltimore Commission on City Plan- 
ning. A digest of this recommendation appears at the 
end of this report as Appendix D. 

If desired by the residents of the Area or made nec- 
essary by the financial position of the city, the ultimate 
completion of the second phase of the program may be 
considerably postponed. When consummated, it will 
complement and confirm the benefits which earlier 
flowed from the completion of Part A described above. 



WAVERLY A STUDY 



IN 



Drawing No. 27 shows the southern portion of the 
Area, as replanned. 

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION 

Survey and Master Plan production was a process 
wholly distinct from the program which must now be 
undertaken by some form of neighborhood organization 
designed to inspire and supervise the completion of the 
physical rehabilitation of the Area, as recommended in 
that Plan. No matter what may be the technical merits 
and soundness of that study, its ultimate success will 
depend on community integration and ambition; on 
the clear recognition, by the mass of the property owners 
themselves, of the importance and imminence of their 
individual and joint problems; on their willingness and 
ability to mobilize and deploy that cooperative and 
continued effort without which the proposed conserva- 
tion program cannot long survive as an effective 
neighborhood force; and on the degree of sympathetic, 
intelligent, and continuous local leadership which is 



available for the immediate and subsequent work of the 
organization. 

If these elements are present in the development of 
the project, it can scarcely fail to accomplish its pur- 
poses. If they are absent, it can hardly hope to reach 
them. 

Recognizing these facts, the Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation has accepted, as its final obligation to the 
Waverly conservation project other than its partici- 
pation in future cooperative activities, as one property 
owner among many active temporary leadership in the 
organization of a neighborhood conservation league, to 
which the plans and recommendations for each property 
and for the whole Area, as developed during the plan- 
ning phase of the survey, may be entrusted; by which, 
with energetic and sympathetic local leadership and 
unified neighborhood support, the translation of these 
plans into the physical improvement and stabilization 
of Waverly may be encouraged and carried forward; 
and under which the neighborhood standards so 
established may long be maintained. 



J L 




SOUTHERN PORTION OF WAVERLY 
AS REPLANNED 



N 

vt 

80 IftO 



Drowirq No. 27 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



63 



MOBILIZED NEIGHBORHOOD EFFORT 

No stronger force can be found with which to activate 
neighborhood conservation effort than a united public 
opinion, expressing community approval and disap- 
proval through the agency of a local organi/.;;tion, ded- 
icated to the general protection of neighborhood values, 
on which home owners can rely for intelligent, energetic 
and unremitting devotion to community welfare and 
betterment. 

The indifferent owner of an obsolete dwelling who is 
satisfied with his home and its surroundings; the dis- 
couraged and resigned owner of a sound structure, who 
has helplessly watched the slow advance toward his 
property of an adjacent depressed area; and the com- 
placent owner who feels sure that depreciation is a 
geographically static condition which can never extend 
itself into his particular neighborhood, will all be found 
initially reluctant to undertake the functions allotted 
to them in a local conservation project. 

Financial profit can rarely be offered in exchange for 
cooperation, because neighborhood stabilization rarely 
produces dramatic increases in investment values and, 
where some measure of increase does result, it is only a 
byproduct of the project, wholly secondary to its real 
purposes. If general adherence is to be gained, each 
owner must be made aware 

(1) That neighborhood conditions, both structural 
and social, are never static; they either constantly 
improve or constantly deteriorate. 

(2) That, whether actually present in his own prop- 
erty, or developing in an area adjacent to him, or 
apparently confined to more remote districts, structural 
deterioration and postponed reconditioning anywhere 
in his general neighborhood are an immediate or pro- 
spective menace to the spiritual and investment values 
of his home and, as such, are of direct personal concern 
to him. 

(3) That the residents within the affected community 
can, through united effort, apply a simple, effective and 
permanent remedy to the danger which confronts them. 

(4) That his own individual interest as an investor, 
his pride and satisfaction in the physical well-being of 
his home and its surroundings, his liability to his family 
and his responsibility to his neighbors, should all enlist 
his willing participation in his community conservation 
program. 

WAVERLY CONSERVATION LEAGUE 

With the aid of organizing personnel delegated by 
the Home Owners' Loan Corporation, an Advisory 
Committee of 25 persons, made up of civic minded 
residents of the Waverly district, including the execu- 
tive heads of the four local improvement associations 
and public spirited leaders both from within the Area 
and from other sections of the city, has been formed for 

64 









the purpose of directing the organization of the Waverly 
Conservation League and thereafter cooperating with it 
in applying the Master Plan to the problems of the Area. 
As constituted, this Advisory Committee can, in like 
manner, function as an inspirational agency and clear- 
ing house for similar projects, should Waverly's exam- 
ple stimulate their development elsewhere in the city of 
Baltimore. 

With the approval of the Advisory Committee, a 
Waverly Conservation League Operating Committee 
has been established. To be members of this commit- 
tee a District Chairman was selected from each of the 
six districts in the Area; three additional members, all 
women, were appointed to represent the feminine resi- 
dents of Waverly, -'and a tenth member, elected at large 
by the other nine commit teemen, will act as League 
President and chief executive. Block captains, each 
representing the residents of a single block in his dis- 
trict, will support each chairman. These captains will 
provide a distributed and intimate contact between the 
Operating Committee and all individual home owners 
in the Area. 

Membership in the Waverly Conservation League 
will be open to all Waverly residents upon the payment 
of a nominal annual fee. As the League's central execu- 
tive agency, the Operating Committee will have super- 
vision of the translation of the Master Plan into the 
actual physical improvement and stabilization of the 
Area. The custody of such survey and planning data, 
maps, sketches, and other matter relating to that Plan, 
as are essential to its subsequent activities, will therefore 
be entrusted to it. 

The procedure for the incorporation of a nonprofit 
organization under the Maryland statutes is simple, 
requiring only that a charter or certificate of incorpora- 
tion be filed with the State tax commission in the Union 
Trust Building, Baltimore, and that a recording fee of 
$10 be paid. No bonus, franchise, or other tax is im- 
posed at the time of filing; the corporation will not be 
subject to subsequent Federal or State taxation; and 
therefore its directors will not be individually liable for 
unpaid taxes in the event of dissolution, as are the 
directors of an ordinary business corporation. 

\ MUNICIPAL CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT 

The decline of a residential neighborhood and its 
eventual abandonment, from whatever cause, to prop- 
erty owners who are financially unable to sustain it, 
not only increases municipal expenditures and decreases 
tax income within the affected area but also compels 
the duplication, elsewhere, of costly pavements, util- 
ities, and school facilities. 

A more complete understanding of the direct cost of 
neighborhood decay and a clearer conception of the 
economic value of neighborhood conservation, in 

W'AVERLYA STUDY IN 



terms of the taxpayer's dollar, may one clay inspire the 
establishment, in every large city, of a "Department of 
Conservation" whose sole function it will be, by precept, 
example, and inspirational activity, to promote com- 
munity stabilization projects in potentially and par- 
tially depreciated sections throughout the city. 

To this end, the projected department would stimu- 
late the formation, in selected areas, of property owners' 
associations designed to carry conservation projects 
forward, pursuant to its own carefully prepared pro- 
gram. Thereafter, it would foster the continuing and 
aggressive interest of these organizations in the pres- 
ervation of their neighborhood standards, by pro- 
moting annual "clean-up, paint-up, and fix-up" cam- 
paigns and by conducting intra- and inter-area fairs, 
exhibitions, and awards for outstanding individual, 
block, and district excellence in maintenance, embellish- 
ment, rehabilitation, remodeling, gardening, land- 
scaping, etc. It would make available to the individual 
home owner, through his neighborhood organization, 
technical information (a) on the planning of rehabilita- 
tion and (b) on the selection, cost, and proper application 
of materials and equipment, in connection with his 
maintenance efforts. It would introduce economies 
through the mass purchase of materials and through 
group contracts for maintenance, painting, repair, and 
fuel. It would supply informed and sympathetic repre- 
sentation when matters in which the neighborhood is 
interested are being considered by the municipality or 
one of its agencies. And it would undertake numerous 
similar activities, which only the salaried staff of a 
municipal department, whose field of action embraces 
an entire metropolitan area, can effectively inaugurate 
and administer. 

The annual monetary cost of a department of mu- 
nicipal government of this type would be small as com- 
pared with its direct benefit in preserving important 
social values, in conserving private capital invested or 
loaned in home communities like Waverly, in safe- 
guarding the city against unproductive or duplicate 
expenditures for utilities, streets, and schools, and in 
retaining the municipal tax base unimpaired. 

BENEFICIAL RESTRICTIONS 

Land developers in and about Baltimore have oc- 
casionally included restrictions in their sales deeds 
which, by imposing limitations on the individual prop- 
erty owner, in fact serve to benefit the community as a 
whole. 

In these deeds, the erection and operation of 
breweries, foundries, mills, factories, store, office and 
apartment buildings, cemeteries, hospitals, etc., is pro- 
hibited. Smoke nuisance is banned. Unless later for- 
mally exempted, the land which these deeds convey may 
be used for single-family residential purposes only. The 



erection of churches, schools, libraries, etc., and estab- 
lishment of parks and playgrounds must be specifically 
approved. Set-back lines are established and no resi- 
dence, private garage, fence, wall, uncovered porch, bay 
window, terrace or private driveway may be con- 
structed, enlarged, altered or painted until plans and 
specifications, showing the nature, kind, shape, height, 
materials, floor plan, elevation, first-floor level, location, 
lot coverage, grade and color scheme have been specifi- 
cally approved in writing. Even awnings may be 
erected only after a sample of the proposed material 
has been submitted and approved. 

Frequently, these sales deeds also include provisions 
which confer the right to levy a subsequent annual 
"maintenance charge," not exceeding a specified 
amount, on each lot sold, whether it is in the hands of 
the original purchaser or of a successor. The consider- 
able amount thus collected each year may not be used 
for the physical repair of individual properties, but is 
applied, for the benefit and protection of the neighbor- 
hood as a whole, to public lighting; the improvement 
and maintenance of streets, parks, playgrounds, sewers, 
and drains; the removal of garbage and rubbish (all 
of which services are usually undertaken by the munici- 
pality if the area is later annexed to the city) ; and for 
trimming and maintaining curb lawns and planted 
public areas, the removal of snow, the examination 
and approval of plans, the enforcement of restrictions, 
and the payment of taxes on and upkeep of private 
parks and playgrounds. 

Unpaid maintenance charges stand as a lien against 
the subject property and have been held by the courts 
to be senior irrespective of the date assessed to a 
mortgage recorded at any time after the record date of 
the original conveyance by the developer. In effect, 
this establishes the area as a quasi-municipal district, 
subject to an annual tax levy for neighborhood benefit. 
By means of clearly defined land-use, maintenance 
and landscape control, and other like restrictions, these 
vendors' deeds thus subordinate the right of the indi- 
vidual to independent action, if such action is detri- 
mental to the neighborhood, and thus eventually con- 
stitute a definite benefit both to him individually and 
to his community as a whole. 

Undoubtedly due, in considerable measure at least, 
to this recognition of the protective force of community 
coordination, homes which were built in these restricted 
sections as far back as 1892 almost a half century 
ago have been sold during the past few years at prices 
which actually exceed their original cost. Con- 
struction costs have, of course, increased greatly dur- 
ing the period in question, but these sales assume 
importance when it is pointed out that only in these 
restricted areas was this comparative level reached 
and that in unrestricted sections (originally at least as 
favorably located and, during the same era, improved 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



65 



with equivalent residential structures) recent sales 
show a general and frequently a sharp investment loss. 
While the noteworthy degree of individual restriction 
for collective benefit which has thus been so advantage- 
ously applied, cannot easily he established in previously 
developed communities like Waverly, the effective 
protection against undesirable infiltration, improper 
land use, unattractive street pictures and initial blight 
infection which such restrictions provide, warrants 
any reasonable effort that may be required to secure 
their voluntary legal assumption by coherent residential 
groups in that Area, to the fullest extent possible. 

NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION FINANCING 

If sound economic principles are to be observed, it 
is fundamental that the final maturity of a monthly 
installment repair loan, covering a variety of items, be 
shorter than the average useful life of the repairs 
involved. It is, however, in no way essential that the 
borrower be compelled to discharge his entire loan 
before the date when the most perishable single item 
of financed reconditioning will require renewal. Exte- 
rior paint, for example, must be restored at more 
frequent intervals than any other ordinary type of 
repair, but it will last considerably longer than 3 years, 
if standard materials and workmanship are used. 
Items such as newly installed heating plants and plumb- 
ing equipment, and new hardwood floors over old soft 
wood floors have a useful life greatly exceeding that 
period. Reconditioning like conversion and architec- 
tural modernization will usually benefit the subject struc- 
ture for a period roughly equivalent to its economic life. 
If a reconditioning advance is so cast that the average 
remaining life of the particular combination of repairs 



it finances extends beyond the last installment date 
such advance, then sound financial practice will have 
been observed. 

Title I of the National Housing Act now provides a 
practical formula for the financing of a moderate degree 
of repair and to it many Waverly owners can have ready 
recourse. If the cost of a proposed reconditioning job is 
relatively large, however and much of it is the 3-year 
32-day repayment period to which loans under Title I 
are now limited, develops a monthly installment which 
is too heavy for the average small-home owner to as- 
sume with that degree of convenience and assurance 
which is essential to the final success of his undertaking. 

The provisions governing loans insured under Section 
207 of the Act, on the other hand, permit an ample 
repayment period, but eligibility restrictions tend to 
reduce the availability of that section for general 
neighborhood conservation financing purposes, in areas 
where single-family residential units predominate. 

Legislative amendment to the National Housing 
Act which will permit the insurance of individual 
repair and rehabilitation loans having maturities 
closely synchronized with the average life span of the 
related improvements, as calculated under a sound 
mathematical formula, would definitely contribute to 
the benefits which it is anticipated the national economy 
will derive from organized urban neighborhood conser- 
vation. Thus the latter would have the benefit not 
only of a loan form exactly keyed to its needs but also 
of the great financial power, the wide experience, the, 
extensive mortgage banking contacts, the already 
efficiently functioning field and technical organization 
and the established operating standards which the 
Federal Housing Administration has so soundly and so 
successfully developed. 



. 



66 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 



Summary 



Briefly summarized, the survey and planning phase 
of the Waverly project served definitely to demonstrate 
that (1) there exists a discernible though as yet incipient 
tlireat to the economic and social integrity of the Area; 
(2) a definite cure for its present and prospective ills is 
available; (3) this cure is an obvious and comparatively 
simple one; and (4) its ultimate effectiveness will be 
exactly measured by the extent and permanence of the 
cooperation which the Waverly Conservation League is 
henceforth able to inspire among the residents of the 
Area as a whole. 

The formula which has been embodied in the Master 
Plan for the solution of Waverly's problem provides a 
pattern which, in general, will be found suitable for the 
treatment of similarly threatened small-home neigh- 



borhoods everywhere. The extent to which it may also 
be successfully applied to areas improved with large, 
single-family dwellings or with apartment buildings, can 
be determined only after surveys and analyses have been 
made of selected test districts in which structures of 
each of these two types predominate. Followed con- 
sistently in the Area for which it was specifically de- 
signed, however or in any other single-family resi- 
dential neighborhood whose structures still retain a 
definite measure of economic value and have a room and 
total cubic content similar to Waverly's that formula 
will long halt the process of physical, social, and eco- 
nomic disintegration which is so insidiously and relent- 
lessly attacking increasingly great urban districts 
throughout the United States. 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



61 



APPENDIX A 



DISTRICT A WAVERLY 
DIVISIONAL STUDY 

In order to segregate, group, and analyze certain 
related factors, during the survey and planning phase of 
the program, more definitely than would have been 



possible if the entire Area had been used as the observa- 
tion unit, Waverly was broken down for economic study 
into six broadly similar sections, designated by letters 
from A to F. An outline of the analysis of one of these 
sections District A follows. Unless exception to the 
contrary is noted, all maps, tables, and comment in this 
section of the report refer to District A only. 





MODEL OF DISTRICT "A", WAVERLY, 
AS REPLANNED 



Drawing No. 28 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN NEIGHliORIIOOD CONSERVATION 



69 



Comprising 31.6 acres in the extreme southern por- 
tion of the Area, District A includes old, middle-aged, 
and relatively new frame and masonry commercial and 
residential structures ; detached, semi-detached and row 
houses in good, fair, and poor repair; properly and im- 
properly placed building improvements; and well and 
badly planned street patterns all in approximately 
the same admixture that is typical of the Waverly area 
as a whole. 

District Subdivision 

To facilitate still closer comparisons and contrasts, 
District A was further broken down into six Divisions, 
each of which includes a group of properties having vir- 
tually identical characteristics as to age, type, material, 
condition, obsolescence, etc., and each of which, in these 
characteristics, differs sharply from all other Divisions 
within the District. Though this grouping produces an 
irregular map pattern, it considerably facilitates the 
determination of long-term trends. 

Divisional lines appear on drawing No. 29. Land 
use and structural types are shown on drawing No. 30. 

Group characteristics are described as follows: 

Division No. 1. Includes one-third of the frame, 
single-family detached and all of the semi-detached 
houses in District A. Of poor design and in need of 



architectural changes, these houses are closely spaced 
on narrow lots. Some lie below the sidewalk level. 
Almost all of them need extensive repair and land- 
scaping. Approximately half border on the commercial 
area. 

Division No. 2. Consists of single-family, detached 
frame houses, usually 3 rooms deep, too closely spaced, 
iind in need of extensive repairs, architectural changes, 
and landscaping. They are located along Venable Ave- 
nue, a stub end street which definitely needs new sur- 
facing, sidewalks, curbs, etc., and eventual extension. 

Division No. 3. Includes 26 old-style, masonry row 
houses, some of which need painting and minor repair. 
While 3 rooms deep, they are in good general condition. 

Division No. 4- Consists entirely of single-family, 
detached frame houses, without definite alinement. 
Many of them are too closely spaced on narrow lots, 
but the majority have sufficient land accommodation. 
All are reasonably well maintained, although some need 
minor repair and landscaping. 

Division No. 5. Contains only comparatively new, 
brick row houses, well designed and in excellent physical 
condition. This group includes the most modern and 
best maintained properties in the District. Its units 
need practically no repair. 



DIVISION INTO GROUPS OF 
SIMILAR AGE, TYPE, AND CONDITION 




District "A" -Waverly 




BO 160 j0 



Drawing No. 29 






70 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 






Table No. 26 
COMMERCIAL AND RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES 


Total 
num- 
ber 


Use 


Division 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Commercial 



36 



100 




11 



100 



23 



100 



25 




100 



101 



100 


9 
15 


39 
61 


9 
211 


Residential - 


Total 


36 


100 


11 


100 


23 


100 


25 


100 


101 


100 


24 


100 


220 




NOTE. Percent discloses relationship between commercial or residential units in each division to the total number of their type in District A. 



Diirision No. 6. Comprises all property zoned for 
commercial purposes and includes combination resi- 
dence and business structures, as well as buildings pri- 
marily designed for commercial use, apartments, etc. 

Division 6 Omitted 

In table No. 26, commercial and residential proper- 



ties are segregated by Divisions. Division 6 includes 
all property in District A which lies along Greenmount 
Avenue, the principal business artery of Waverly. The 
land value of the vacant property and of the property 
which has been improved primarily for commercial 
purposes within this Division is, of course, largely based 
on business use. The 14 converted dwellings within 



LAND USE AND STRUCTURAL TYPES 



KEY 

COMMERCIAL USE 

Frame 
BB Masonry 

RESIDENTIAL USE 

33 Frame 
Masonry 



Draw.n3 No. 30 




NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



71 




the Division, now used for both business and residential 
purposes, are in a transitional stage, residential being 
only incidental to commercial use, and the value of the 
land under them is also based on projected commercial, 
rather than on present residential, use. To include 
Division 6 as a factor in tabulating and computing 
residential data for the entire District would serve only 
to distort the resulting figures and would make impos- 
sible a correct analysis of the social and economic 
conditions which prevail throughout the residential 
portion of District A. In all subsequent computations, 
tabulations, and references, therefore, data relating to 
Division 6 are omitted as a computation factor, unless 
specific exception is noted. 

Since the residential use of the three converted dwell- 
ings which lie outside Division 6 is at least as important 
as their business use, and because their present partial- 
conversion status represents a nonconforming use which 
reconversion or destruction will eventually eradicate, 
these three structures arc, for convenience, hereafter 

tabulated as residential. 

I 
Exterior Materials 

Classification of exterior structural materials, by 
Divisions, is made in table No. 27. 



Table No. 27 
EXTERIOR MATERIAL BY DIVISIONS 


Division 


Frame 


Masonry 


Total 


1_ 


17 
11 

25 

3 


19 

23 

1 
101 
20 


36 
11 
23 
26 
101 
23 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Total 


56 


164 


220 





TAXES 

Assessed Value 

No new residential structures were built in District 
A between the years 1927 and 1939. 

The structural depreciation which accrued on all 
commercial and converted buildings during that 
period was more than offset by the increased assess- 
ment on the land underlying these structures with 
the result that the combined tax value of both land and 
buildings in the commercial class increased 50 percent 
during the 12-year period between 1927 and 1939. On 
the other hand, the total assessment for residential 
land and improvements combined decreased by 12 
percent between 1927 and 1939. 



72 



Table No. 28 

AVERAGE ASSESSMENT 
(Land and improvements) 



Type 



Commercial 

Commercial and 

residential 

Residential. _ 



1927 



$19,261 

5, 131 

5, 196 



1939 



$30, 440 

6,500 
4,047 



Increase 



$11, 179 
1,369 



Decrease 



$1, 149 



Average values assessed for tax purposes in 1927 and 
1939 are shown in table No. 28. These values for 1939 
are charted on drawing No. 31. 

Since the proportion of modern and old buildings in 
the commercial and converted group, is roughly similar 
to the proportion in the residential class, it may be 
assumed that accrued depreciation and the deflation 
of high post-war construction cos,ts are given equivalent 
weight in the District A assessment of both groups. 
The 12-percent shrinkage in District residential assessed 
values, depicted in tables Nos. 28 and 29, not only 
runs directly counter to the trend of assessment for 
District commercial and converted property, but also 
counter to the general Baltimore and national trend, 
and quite strikingly reflects the adverse influence of 
incipient but definite blight infection, within the body 
of District A, on its residential values. 

Without exception, as is evident from an examination 
of table No. 29, every Division in the District reflects 
this depreciating influence. 

Tax Delinquence 

Data relating to tax levy and delinquence were 
obtained from the records in the Baltimore City Hall 
and Courthouse, as of July 31, 1939. 



Table No. 29 

DIRECTION OF ASSESSED VALUES 
(Land and residential improvements) 


Division 


1927 


1939 


Decrease 


Amount 


Percent 


1 


$104, 180 
40, 710 
121,600 
141,040 
676, 220 


$101, 800 
38, 290 
96, 340 
132, 930 
586, 350 


$2, 380 
2,420 
25, 260 
8, 110 
89, 870 


2. 4 
6.0 
20. 8 
5.8 
13. 3 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Total 


1, 083, 750 


955, 710 


128, 040 


11. 8 


NOTE. No new residentta! units were constructed in District A between 1927 
and 1939. 



WAVERLYA STUDY IN 






In terms of residential units, 8 percent of the proper- 
ties in District A were in arrears in the payment of taxes 
on that date. In terms of the 1939 levy, 13 percent of 
the total residential tax was delinquent. Evidently, 
greater delinquence occurs in the higher assessment 
brackets. 

A 13-percent delinquency for the District compares 
favorably with a 15-percent record for the city as a 
whole. 

Tax Sales 

Under the Maryland code, real estate may be sold to 
satisfy unpaid tax liens after June 30 of each year. As 
a matter of practice, however, sales are usually post- 



poned for from three to four years or until the statute 
of limitations is about to become operative. That few, 
if any, of the 16 properties in District A, which are at 
present in arrears, will eventually be sold for taxes, may 
be inferred from table No. 31. 



Table No. 30 

CITY AND DISTRICT TAX DELINQUENCE 

(Land and residential improvements) 



Area 


1939 tax 
levy 


1939 taxes 
delinquent 


Per- 
cent 


City of Baltimore 
District A 


$26, 609, 165 
42, 264 


$4, 001, 019 
7, 586 


15 
13 



Table No. 31 

TAX DELINQUENCE BY DIVISIONS 

(Residential structures only) 


Division 


Number properties delin- 
quent in tax payments 
for 


Total 
num- 
ber 
in 
dis- 
trict 


Total 
num- 
ber 
de- 
lin- 
quent 


Per- 
cent 
de- 
lin- 
quent 
to 
total 


Under 
one 
year 


One 
to 
two 
years 


Two 
to 
three 
years 


Over 
three 
years 


1 


2 



1 
3 


3 
2 
1 

1 



1 
1 

1 










36 
11 
23 
26 
100 


5 
3 
2 
2 
4 


14 
27 
9 
8 
4 


2 


3 


4. 


5 


Total... 


6 


7 


3 





196 


16 


8 



AVERAGE ASSESSED VALUE BY DIVISIONS 

LAND AND IMPROVEMENTS 
1939 




District "A" Waverly 




Drawing No. 31 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



73 




Tax Delinquence Encumbrances Repairs Age 

Divisional comparisons in table No. 32 show quite 
clearly that there is little or no relationship between 
structural age, as such, and mortgage status, post- 
poned reconditioning or tax delinquence, but that 
when ratios are high between any two of the three 
factors last named, the age factor is usually found also to 
be present. Neighborhoods which have high ratios of 
tax delinquence also show high ratios of mortgage 
encumbrance and physical deterioration. And, finally, 
a direct relationship between mortgage and maintenance 
ratios is disclosed. 

Particularly noteworthy is the fact that the highest 
ratio of tax delinquency occurs in those property groups 
which are in the poorest structural condition and that, 
conversely, the lowest delinquency ratio is found in 
the best maintained neighborhood. Whether continued 
structural obsolescence, postponed repairs, and tax 
arrearages reflect only a reduced economic status or 
can be attributed also to discouragement with neigh- 
borhood conditions, unwillingness to increase present 
investment, and a consequent indifference to the 
prompt discharge of tax obligations, cannot be deter- 
mined. That a direct relationship exists, however, 
between residential desirability and prompt tax pay- 
ment, is evident. 



Table No. 32 

COMPARISON OF DELINQUENCE, MORTGAGES, 
REPAIRS, AND AGE 


Division 


Percent 


Average 
struc- 
tural age 


Delinquent 
to nondelin- 
quent prop- 
erties 


Mort- 
gaged to 
clear 
properties 


Properties 
needing 
recondi- 
tioning to 
all others 


1 


14 

27 
9 
8 
4 


53 
54 
39 
27 
43 


94 
100 
43 
35 
20 


53 
44 
25 
49 
17 


2 


3 


4 


5 





Tax Delinquence and Ground Ownership 

Under the ground lease system which largely prevails 
in Baltimore, over 75 percent of the residences in 
Waverly are built on sites the fee to which is not held 
by the owner of the structure. Ground rents in these 
cases constitute a lien senior to all other subsequently 
imposed liens except those for municipal and state 
taxes. The payment of taxes by the lessor, as they 
accrue, is one of the usual conditions of these leases. 

In terms of residential units, 1939 taxes were delin- 



Table No. 33 

TAX DELINQUENCE AND GROUND OWNERSHIP 

(Residential structures only) 


Division 


Improvements owned 
subject to ground lease 


Improvements and 

ground in one 
ownership 


Num- 
ber 
under 
ground 
leases 


Num- 
ber 
delin- 
quent 
in tax 
pay- 
ments 


Per- 
cent 


Num- 
ber 
identi- 
cally 
owned 


Num- 
ber 
delin- 
quent 
in tax 
pay- 
ments 


Per- 
cent 


1 


26 
10 
5 
16 

70 


3 
3 
2 

1 
3 


15 
30 
40 
6 
4 


10 

1 

18 
10 
30 


2 



1 
1 


20 


10 
3 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Total--- 


127 


12 


9 


69 


4 


6 



quent on 9.44 percent of the properties in the District 
which are subject to ground lease arid on 5.79 percent 
of those where the ownership of the fee and the improve- 
ment is identical. Furthermore, tax payment arrear- 
ages were highest in those ground lease groups which 
from a residential standpoint, are least desirable. N 
other relationship appears to exist between tax delin 
quence and ground ownership. 

RECONDITIONING 

Structural Condition 

The field survey and office analysis developed 
recommendation for demolition in District A. There 
are 196 residential properties in the district, of which 13 
are poorly maintained, 101 need more or less important 







Table No. 34 
CONDITION OF EXTERIOR 


Division 


Number 


Poor 


Fail- 
to 
good 


Good 


1 


8 
5 





23 
6 
11 
24 
37 


5 

12 
2 
63 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Total 


13 


101 


82 





74 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 



Table No. 35 

REPRODUCTION COST, DEPRECIATION, AND "AS IS" VALUK 

(Residential structures only) 


Division 


Reproduction 
cost 


Physical 
deprecia- 
tion ' 


Func- 
tional and 
economic 
deprecia- 
tion 2 


Total depreciation 


Total 
"as is" 
value 


Average 
"as is" 
value 


Amount 


Percent 


1. 


$131,450 
62,800 
122, 200 
177, 250 
534, 525 


$36, 400 
20,800 
23, 500 
41, 350 
89, 550 


$33, 250 
14, 200 
20, 000 
34, 950 
54, 625 


69, 650 
35, 000 
43, 500 
76, 300 
144, 175 


53 
55 
36 
43 

27 


$61, 800 
27, 800 
78, 700 
100, 950 
390. 350 


$1,714 
2,545 
3,422 
3, 610 
3,904 


2 


3 


4 . 


5 


Total.. 


1,028, 225 


211,600 


157. 025 


368, 625 


3 36 


659, 600 


3 3, 039 




1 Necessary reconditioning. 'Obsolescence.. 'Average. 



reconditioning, and 82 are in good repair. Divisions 1 
and 2 rate lowest in structural condition. 

Reproduction Value 

The replacement cost of all residential structures was 
estimated at $1,028,225; physical depreciation and ob- 
solescence at $368,625; and present value at $659,600. 
Depreciation, which thus averages 36 percent, is of 
course greatest in the three older divisions of the 
District. 

The relationship between reproduction cost, physical, 
functional, and economic depreciation, and present 
value is shown in table No. 35. 

Distribution of Repair Cost 

Of the 196 dwellings in the District, 35 are in need 
of major reconditioning, exceeding $200 per unit in 



Table No. 36 

RECONDITIONING COSTS 

(Only residential structures needing over $200 of repairs) 


1 livision 


Total 
units 
in dis- 
trict 


Estimated cost and number 
of units 


Total 
units to 
be re- 
paired 


$200 
to 
$349 


$350 
to 
$499 


$500 
to 
$749 


Over 
$750 


1 . 


36 
11 
23 
26 
100 


5 
6 

2 

1 


8 
2 

4 



3 
3 





1 






17 
11 

6 

1 


2 


3 


4 ' 


5- 


TotaL. 


196 


14 


14 


6 


1 


35 



cost. They lie wholly in those divisions which include 
only old, single-family and semi-detached structures. 

Reconditioned Value 

The total cost of the repairs which are necessary to 
bring these structures back to Area standards is esti- 
mated at $16,985. If completed, the proposed pro- 
gram will increase their value by $23,950. While the 
enhancement of investment values above the actual 
cost of repair is an objective quite secondary to struc- 
tural conservation, the fact that the amount invested 
in maintenance repairs will produce a projected 40 
percent investment profit should further stimulate the 
active cooperation of affected property owners in the 
conservation program. As might be anticipated, by 
far the greatest need for reconditioning occurs in 
Divisions 1 and 2, which comprise old frame structures 
onlv. 



Table No. 37 
RECONDITIONED COST AND APPRECIATION 

(Only residential structures needing reconditioning) 


Division 


"As is" 
appraised 
value 


"As re- 
condi- 
tioned" 
value 


Estima- 
ted cost 
of recon- 
dition- 
ing 


Increase 
over 
cost of 
recondi- 
tioning 


Percent 
increase 
over 
cost 


1.-- 


$56, 600 
27, 800 
4, 100 
29, 800 

7, 900 


$68, 600 
36, 000 
4,300 
32, 900 
8,350 


$9, 361 
4,592 
125 
2,525 
382 


$2, 639 
3,608 
75 
575 
68 


28 
79 
60 
23 

18 


2 


3- 


4 


5 


Total __ 


126, 200 


150, 150 


16, 985 


6, 965 


41 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



75 



Appraised and Assessed Values 

The structural value which the city placed for tax 
purposes on the first four divisions in District A is 33 
percent less than the value which was set on this prop- 
erty by the field survey appraisers. The assessed value 
of District 5 in which are located all of the dwellings 
built since 1920 exceeds its appraised value by approx- 
imately 14 percent, indicating that the city's assessment 
continues to reflect the inflated building cost and sales 
levels of the post-war period. Here is an opportunity 
for constructive effort by an active neighborhood or- 
ganization. 



Table No. 38 

APPRAISED AND ASSESSED VALUES 
(Residential structures only) 


Division 


"As is" 
appraised 


1939 
assessed 


Appraised 
exceeds 
assessed 
by 


Assessed 
exceeds 
appraised 
by 


1 


$61, 800 
27, 800 
78, 700 
100, 950 
390, 350 


$45, 670 
15, 500 
70, 230 
67, 750 
447, 830 


$16, 130 
12, 300 
8,470 
33, 200 




2 




3 




4 




5 


$57, 480 


Total 




659, 600 


646, 980 


12, 620 









OCCUPANCY 

Owners and Tenants 

In an area of single-family homes like Waverly, a 
high factor of leased property may point toward in- 
cipient neighborhood depreciation. The ratio of rented 
to owner-occupied dwellings will frequently measure 
the extent to which this decline has progressed. 

At the time the field survey was completed, only 5 
out of the 196 residential units in District A were 
vacant. Roughly, four-fifths of the balance were 
owner-occupied and one-fifth were tenant-occupied. 
The national ratio of owner-occupied to tenant-occupied 
units 7 is approximately 4 : 6 while that for District A is 
4:1. A ratio of owner occupancy to tenant occupancy 
roughly 6 times the national average, is thus disclosed. 

The ratio between the number of tenant-occupied 
frame houses and the number of tenant-occupied brick 
structures is virtually the same as the ratio between 
the total number of frame homes to the total number of 
brick houses in the District. This indicates a balanced 
supply of rental offerings, which is always a healthy 
sign. 

' Real Property Inventory. 



Divisional owner-tenant distribution is confused and 
without apparent significance. Although Divisions 1 
and 2 most closely resemble each other as to structural 
age, type, and condition, tenant occupancy in Division 
1 is the highest (30 percent) and in Division 2 is the 
lowest (9 percent) in the community. 

Drawing No. 32 graphically depicts the relationship 
between owner and tenant occupancy. 



Table No. 39 

OWNER AND TENANT OCCUPANCY 
(Residential structures only) 


Division 


Total 
struc- 
tures 


Num- 
ber 
owner 
occu- 
pied 


Per- 
cent 
of 
whole 


Num- 
ber 
ten- 
ant 
occu- 
pied 


Per- 
cent 
of 

whole 


Va- 
cant 


Per- 
cent 
of 
whole 


1 


36 
11 
23 

26 
100 


24 
10 
19 
19 
82 


67 
91 
83 
73 
82 


11 
1 
4 
7 
14 


31 
9 
17 
27 
14 


1 



4 


3 



4 


2 


3 


4 




Total. _. 


196 


154 


79 


37 


19 


5 


3 



Duration of Ownership 

As might be expected, owners tend to occupy their 
homes much longer than tenants. Of the 154 owner- 
occupants in the District, 105 (or over two-thirds) have 
lived in the same houses for 10 years or more, and 69 
(or almost oneJialf of them) have a continuous occu- 
pancy record exceeding 15 years. Division 4, which 
comprises old, frame, single-family houses in good 
average repair, shows the highest percentage of un- 
broken occupancy, 85 percent of its residential struc- 
tures having been continuously occupied by the same 
owners for over 10 years and 73 percent for over 15 



Table No. 40 

DURATION OF OWNER OCCUPANCY 

(Owner-occupied residences only) 


No 
report 


Division 


Total 
owner- 
occu- 
pied 
struc- 
tures 


Length of occupancy in years 


Less 
than 2 


2 to 5 


6 to 10 


11 to 
15 


Over 
15 


1 


24 
10 
19 
19 

82 


3 

1 

1 




1 
2 
1 
9 


6 

4 

10 


5 

1 
2 

28 


8 
5 
10 
14 
32 


2 
3 
2 
1 
3 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Total. .. 


154 


5 


13 


20 


36 


69 


11 



76 



WAVERLY A STUDY 



years. Division 5, a much newer, all-brick, row-house 
section, follows closely, with 100 percent of its buildings 
occupied for at least 2 years, 75 percent for over 10, and 
40 percent for over 1 5 years. 

While it is quite evident that structural age alone has 
little or no influence on continuity, it is equally clear 



Table No. 41 

DURATION OF TENANT OCCUPANCY 
(Tenant-occupied residences only) 


Division 


Total 
owner- 
occu- 
pied 

struc- 
tures 


Length of occupancy in years 


No 
report 


Less 
than 2 


2 to 5 


6 to 10 


11 to 
15 


Over 
15 


1 


11 
1 
4 

7 
14 


1 


2 
2 


li 

3 
3 
5 


1 

1 
1 
5 


2 






1 




1 



1 

1 
1 


9 


3 


4 


5 


Total... 


37 


5 


17 


8 


2 


2 


3 



that there is a direct relationship between adequate 
maintenance and duration of occupancy. 

Duration of Tenancy 

Evident in table No. 41 is an equally low rate of tenant 
turn-over. Approximately 6 percent of the renters in 
the District have occupied the same houses for more 
than 15 years; 12 percent for 10 years or over; and 33 
percent for varying periods in excess of 6 years. The 
average occupancy period appears to be lengthening in 
Division 5, which is to be expected, since, structurally, 
it is the youngest community in the District. 

Owner-Tenant Mobility 

Since data relating to population mobility are usually 
of assistance in determining the attained momentum of 
decline in a single-family residential neighborhood, it is 
interesting to observe that approximately 90 percent of 
the owner-occupied units in the District have housed the 
same families for more than 5 years, as compared with 
a national average of 80.8 percent; over 30 percent of 
the tenanted property has been occupied by the same 
persons for more than 5 years, against a national aver- 
age of 17.9 percent; and that only 13 percent of the 



OCCUPANCY 
OF BUILDINGS 



COMMERCIAL 

Owner Tenant 



RESIDENTIAL 

Owner Tenant 




District "A" Waverly 



N 

vt 



BO ISO J40 



Drawms No. 32 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



11 



tenants in District A have occupied their present 
dwellings for less than 2 years, contrasted with an 
average throughout the Nation of 57.4 percent. 

It thus becomes evident that District A is a pre- 
dominantly residential community, largely owner-occu- 
pied, with a low rate of mobility among both owners 
and tenants. This indicates a relatively high degree of 
satisfaction with neighborhood conditions. 

Occupancy and Structural Age 

No relationship between structural age and type of 
tenancy is discernible. While the two oldest Divisions 
develop the lowest ratios of owner-occupied to tenant- 
occupied property, the third oldest shows the highest 
ratio. 

Increasingly evident, as the study proceeds, however, 
is a quite constant uniformity in the tabulated posi- 
tions of both the older and the newer brick row neigh- 
borhoods, which confirms the visual impression that 
Baltimore has developed a distinct "row-house type" 
of owner and tenant. 




Table No. 42 

OCCUPANCY AND STRUCTURAL AGE 

(Residential structures only) 


Division 


Average 
age 


Percent 
of owner 
occupied 


Percent 
of tenant 
occupied 


Percent 
of 
vacant 


1 . ... 


53 

44 
25 
49 
17 


67 
91 
83 
73 

82 


31 
9 

17 
27 
14 


3 



4 


2 


3 . .... 


4 


5 





Room Ratios 

Except during periods of economic distress, the aver- 
age number of occupants per room and the presence of 
extra families provide sound indices of social conditions 
and trends. In uncovering and bounding a substand- 
ard area, it is quite as important to ascertain whether 
the buildings within its limits are overcrowded as it is 
to learn whether they are obsolete, unsafe, insufficiently 
provided with light, air, and sanitary facilities, in need 
of major repair, and generally below decent living 
standards. 

In general, overcrowding is of two kinds, (a} family 
occupancy of such small quarters as to violate reason- 
able standards of health, comfort, and privacy, and (6) 
"doubling up," or the sharing of single-family quarters 
by two or more families, each of which would occupy a 
separate living unit were it financially able to do so. 
Long-continued overcrowding facilitates the spread of 



78 



sickness, delinquency, immorality, and finally crime, by 
making impossible a large part of that privacy which is 
essential to the dignity of normal life. The reluctance 
of occupants to disclose that economic distress which 
overcrowding usually denotes often makes it exceed- 
ingly difficult to obtain data upon which to base studies 
relating to it. 



Ml'LTIPU 
Division 


; OCCU1 

Persons 
in 
owner's 
family 


Table No. 

ANCY 1 
PROPER 

Roomers 


43 

N' OWNI 
TY 

Total 
occu- 
pants 


:R-OCCU 

Number 
of rooms 


PIED 

Occu- 
pants pei- 
room 


1 


88 
52 
91 
71 
257 


3 
3 

1 6 
1 4 
10 


91 
55 
97 
75 
267 


145 
73 
127 
153 
562 


0. 63 

. 7.'. 
. 76 
.49 
.48 


2.. 


3 


4 _ 


5 


Total. . 


559 26 


585 


1,060 


. 55 


' Divisions 3 and 4 each include one extra two-person family. 



The field survey of District A disclosed a total of 
1,303 rooms, occupied by 748 persons, including 24 
roomers and 2 extra families of 2 persons each. Tin- 
area shows no evidence of overcrowding or harmful 
doubling up. Residential structures average 6.6 rooms 
each. There are 1.9 rooms per person in owner- 
occupied homes and 1.5 in tenant-occupied units. 
The average number of rooms available in the District 
for each occupant, including boarders and extra 
families, is 1.74. This compares most favorably with 
the level of 0.85 room per occupant which is generally 
accepted by students of urban social problems as the 
lowest permissible minimum. 



Table No. 44 

MULTIPLE OCCUPANCY IN TENANT-OCCUPIED 
PROPERTY 


Division 


Persons 
in 
tenant's 
family 


Roomers 


Total oc- 
cupants 


Number 
of rooms 


Occu- 
pants per 
room 


1 


60 
5 
26 
32 
39 






1 


60 
5 
26 
32 
40 


60 
6 
28 
53 
94 


1. 00 

.83 
.93 
.60 
.43 


2 


3 


4 


5. 


Total. 


162 


1 


163 


241 


. 67 



WAVERLYA STUDY 



IN 



Occupancy and Mortgage Status 

Examination of the mortgage records in the City 
Hall disclosed that, while 44.8 percent of the owner- 
occupied dwellings in the District are mortgaged, as 
compared with the Real Property Inventory national 
average of 56.3 percent, only 35 percent of the rented 
structures in the community are so encumbered. 

Owner-occupied property is most frequently mort- 
gaged in the two oldest Divisions; that in the third 
oldest, least frequently. Exactly reversed, on the 
other hand, is the mortgage status of the tenant- 
occupied homes in these three Divisions. 

While, therefore, table No. 45 discloses a broadly 
similar total ratio of mortgaged to clear properties in 
the owner-occupied and tenant-occupied groups, a 
divisional study of the table develops quite the reverse 
of this relationship. 



Table No. 45 

OCCUPANCY AND MORTGAGE STATUS 

(Residential structures only) 


Division 


Num- 
ber 
owner 
occu- 
pied 


Num- 
ber of 
mort- 
gaged 
proper- 
ties 


Per- 
cent 


Num- 
ber 
tenant 
occu- 
pied 


Num- 
ber of 
mort- 
gaged 
proper- 
ties 


Per- 
cent 


1 


24 
10 
19 
19 

82 


15 
6 
9 
4 
35 


62 
60 
47 
21 
43 


11 
1 

4 
7 
14 


3 



3 

7 


28 


43 
50 


2 
3 


4 


5 . 


Total. .. 


154 


69 


45 


37 


13 


35 



For Sale and Rent 

Frequent change in the tenancy of rented or owner- 
occupied homes generally indicates either economic 
distress or dissatisfaction with neighborhood condi- 
tions. Usually present with it, in either case, is found 
a relatively low standard of structural maintenance 
and declining property values. 

As of the date, of this report, 8 homes, or 4 percent of 
the total number in the District, were being offered for 
sale; 5 dwellings, or 2/2 percent of the total, were being 
offered for rent; and 5 homes, or 1% percent of the 194 
properties in the District, were at that time vacant. 
These ratios indicate a healthy condition, particularly 
since offerings were well scattered throughout the 
community. 

Title Transfers 

During the 20-year period between 1919 and 1939, 
the average annual recorded title transfer, except build- 
ers' sales, family transfers, and sales under foreclosure, 



Table No. 46 

PROPERTIES FOR SALE AM) RENT 
(Residential structures only) 


Division 


Total 
prop- 
erties 


Prop- 
erties 
for 
sale 


Per- 
cent 
of 
total 


Prop- 
erties 
for 
rent 


Per- 
cent 
of 
total 


Va- 
cant 


1 


36 
11 
23 
26 
100 


1 

1 
1 
5 


3 


4 
4 
5 


2 

1 

2 


6 

4 

2 


1 




4 

5 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Total. .. 


196 


8 


4 


5 


3 



of the 154 owner-occupied properties in District A, was 
slightly over 4 percent and similar transfer among 
rented properties was slightly under 4 percent. No 
important divisional relationships are developed by the 
tabulation of turn-over figures, but in examining them 
it is interesting to note that four-fifths of the houses in 
the District changed hands at least once during the 
past 20 years; that the 83-percent turn-over figure for 
the owner-occupied group during that period was vir- 
tually identical with the 75-percent figure for the rental 
group; and that the highest percentage of ownership 
change (excluding builder's original deed) occurred in 
the new row-house section, where turn-over was 100 
percent, while the lowest was in one of the two oldest 
and least well-maintained Divisions, where a 50-percent 
turn-over occurred. 



OCCUPANCY 


AND 

(Res 

Owner- 
occu- 
pied 
prop- 
erties 


Table No. 47 

SALES FREQUENCY, 1919-1939 

idential structures only) 


Division 


Sold at 
least 
once 


Percent 


Tenant- 
occu- 
pied 
prop- 
erties 


Sold at 
least 
once 


Percent 


Now 
vacant 


1 


24 
10 
19 
19 
82 


18 
5 
13 
12 
81 


75 
60 
08 
63 
99 


11 
1 
4 
7 

14 


7 
1 
4 
3 
14 


64 
100 
100 
43 
100 


1 


I) 


4 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Total 


154 


129 


83 


37 


29 


78 


5 





Multiple Sales 

Disregarding the original sale from the builder to 
the owner-occupant, and omitting family transfers and 
sales under foreclosure, eveiy residential structure in 
District A has, on the average, been sold \% times 
during the past 20 years. Complete turn-over has 
therefore been at the approximate rate of once each 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



79 



Table No. 48 

Ml'I/rrPLK SALES, 1919-1930 
(Residential structures only) 


Division 


Number of properties which were sold 


Total 
sales 


Total 
prop- 
erties 


Per- 
cent 
sales 
to 
prop- 
erties 


Once 
only 


Twice 


Three 
times 


Four 
times 


Five 

times 
or 
more 


1 


17 
2 
8 
10 
44 



2 
6 
3 
31 


3 
2 
2 
1 
13 



1 



5 


1 


1 
2 


43 
16 
26 
24 
175 


36 
11 
23 
26 
100 


119 
145 
113 
93 

175 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Tot-il 


81 


48 


21 


C 


4 


284 


196 


145 



13 years. Division 4, with an average turn-over once 
each 21 years, heads the list for immobility of occupants. 
The position of Division 5 at the bottom of the list, 
for the first time in these studies, is undoubtedly due 
to the fact that property ownership in that compara- 
tively new neighborhood has not yet "shaken down." 
If, for the moment, Division 5 is excluded from these 
calculations, the average annual turn-over factor for 
the balance of District A falls to one sale each 18 
years. While comparable figures for single-family 
residential structures elsewhere in the United States 
which range in age from 25 to 60 years are not available, 
this showing certainly does not indicate any marked 
exodus of dissatisfied owners from the older and pre- 
sumably less desirable sections of the Waverly com- 
munity. 

Latest Sale 

Supplementing and confirming the conclusion drawn 
from table No. 48 the following tabulation shows that 37 
homes in the District have been under the same owner- 



Table No. 49 

PROPERTY SALES BY PERIODS ' 
(Residential structures only) 


Division 


No sales 
in 20 
years 


Number of houses last sold 
between 


1919-24 


1925^29 


1930-34 


1935-39 


1 


11 
4 
6 
11 
5 


9 
1 
6 
8 
57 


8 

5 
2 
15 


3 
1 
3 
4 

8 


5 
5 
3 
1 
15 


2 


3 


4 . 


5 


Total 


37 


81 


30 


19 


29 


1 Sale by builder to original buyer omitted. 



ship for more than 20 years; that 81 were last sold 15 
or more years ago; and that another 30 have not been 
sold within the past 10 years. 

Sales Frequency and Maintenance 

Except in Division 5, where comparative structural 
youth probably weights the figures, a direct and uni- 
form connection between needed reconditioning and 
sales frequency appears to have been established. If 
judgment may properly bo based on these figures, the 
graph line of physical decline and of ownership turn- 
over can be expected to coincide closely in older 
residential neighborhoods. 



Table No. 50 

SAI.KS I'HEQUENCY AND MAINTKN AXCK 
(Residential structures only) 


Division 


Percent of 
sales to 
total 
properties 


Percent of 
properties 
needing re- 
conditioning 
to total 
number 


1 


119 
145 
113 
93 

175 


94 
100 
43 
35 
20 


2 .. 


3 


4 


5 





Sales Frequency and Mortgage Status 

While average sales frequency in the mortgaged prop- 
erty classification exceeded that for clear property 
throughout the District as a whole, this showing is so 
definitely contradicted by important divisional totals as 
to suggest that, in Waverly at least, mortgage status has 
no constant relationship to or influence on sales 
frequency. 



Table No. 51 

SALES FREQUENCY AND MORTGAGE STATUS 
(Residential structures only) 


Division 


Total 
sales 


Number 
of mort- 
gaged 
proper- 
ties 


Percent 
of sales 
to mort- 
gaged 
proper- 
ties 


Number 
of clear 
proper- 
ties 


Percent 
of sales 
to clear 
proper- 
ties 


1 

2... 


43 
16 
26 
24 
175 


19 
6 
9 
7 
43 


226 
266 
288 
343 
412 


17 
5 
14 
19 
57 


253 
320 
150 
126 
307 


3 


4... 


5 


Total .. 


284 


84 


338 


112 


254 



80 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 



Sales Frequency and Age 

Similarly, structural age is not of itself reflected in 
sales frequency, as is quite apparent from an examina- 
tion of table No. 52. 



Table No. 52 

SALES FREQUENCY AND STRUCTURAL AGE 

(Residential structures only) 


Division 


Average turn- 
over in 20 
years 


Structural 
age 


1. 


1. 19 
1.45 
1. 13 
0. 93 
1.75 


53 

44 
25 
49 

17 


2 


3 . . 


4 


5 





ENCUMBRANCES 

Mortgage Status 

Of the 196 residential properties in District A, 43 
percent are encumbered. This percentage is slightly 
higher than the 38-percent figure for Waverly as a 
whole possibly due to the fact that approximately 
one-half the structures in District A are relatively new. 
The percentage of encumbered homes in the District 
compares favorably, however, with the national per- 
centage of 56.3 for mortgaged, single-family, owner- 
occupied residences. 



Table No. 53 

MORTGAGE STATUS 

(By number of structures) 


Division 


Number 
of clear 
properties 


Number 
of mort- 
gaged 
properties 


Percent 
of mort- 
gaged to 
total 


1 


17 
5 
14 
19 
57 


19 
6 
9 
7 
43 


53 
54 
39 
27 
43 


2 ......... 


3 


4 


5 


Total 


112 


84 


43 





The ratio of mortgaged to unmortgaged properties is 
highest in Divisions 1 and 2, both of which comprise 
old, frame, single-family structures, poorly maintained. 
It is lowest in District 4, which is characterized by 
similar structures, of an almost equal age, but well 



maintained. The mortgage status of the two brick-row 
divisions is closely similar and their rating is almost 
identical with the District average. 

We now begin to recognize and even to anticipate 
a certain measure of constancy in the relative positions 
and relationships of the five Divisions, as the process 
of tabulation and analysis proceeds. It is from repeti- 
tions of this type that the general characteristics and 
trends of a community become apparent and the bound- 
aries of the substandard areas within it (if any) 
emerge. 

Mortgage Holders 

At the date of this report, the Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation held 14 percent in amount and 18 percent 
in number of all mortgages on District A property. 
Except for one small lien of $495, owned by the R. F. C. 
Mortgage Co., no other governmental agency is recorded 
as a district mortgagee. 

F. H. A. has insured 58 Title II loans in the Waverly 
area, largely for savings and loan associations, only 
one of which is on property in District A. 

Because of the wide use of the ground-rent system, 
under which construction mortgages technically rank 
as junior liens, life insurance companies make few resi- 
dential loans in Baltimore. No insurance company 
loans appear of record in District A at the present time. 
For the same reason, mortgage bankers have been 
relatively inactive in the District, being recorded as 
the makers of but 3 percent of its real-estate loans. 
Participation by individual mortage investors stand- 
ing at 12 percent has also been comparatively limited, 
for the reason that the purchase of ground rents, in 
some cases at a substantial discount from a 6-percent 
capitalized basis, has been considered a much more 
attractive investment by local capital. It is even 
possible that the notably low ratio of mortgaged to 
unmortgaged homes in the city, as contrasted with 
national ratios for comparative properties, reflects, on 
the one hand, the secondary lien position of the average 
Baltimore residential mortgage and, on the other, the 
relatively higher yield and better security which the 
similar ground-lease investment offers. 

Banks, trust companies, and title companies are 
recorded as holding 21 percent in amount of the District's 
mortgages and savings and loan associations, by far 
the largest holders as a class, are credited with 50 per- 
cent of the total. Of the 42 savings and loan mortgages 
against District A property, 7 are held by federalized 
institutions. 

State-chartered savings and loan associations, of 
which there are some 400 in Baltimore, arc not subject 
to public supervision of any kind and frequently engage 
in financial activities far removed from the financing of 
residential construction by means of mobilized savings. 
Many of these institutions, on the other hand, carry on 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



81 



the type of business indicated by their common title 
and, as their funds permit, willingly make residential 
mortgage loans up to 66 percent of the value of the 
improvements, subject to ground-rent prior liens, 
where the additional security of good moral character 
and stable income is also present. 



Table No. 54 

MORTGAGE HOLDERS 

(Residential structures only) 


Percent 
of total 
amount 


Holder 


Num- 
ber 
held 


Percent 
of all 
mort- 
gages 


Original 
amount 


H. O. L. C.'_ - 


15 
1 

12 
4 

40 
12 


18 

I 

14 
5 

48 
14 


$29, 947 
495 

46, 755 
6,749 

108, 213 
27, 340 


14 

( 2 ) 

21 
3 

50 
12 


R. F. C. Mortgage Co. 
Banks, trust and title 
companies .. _ 


Mortgage bankers 
Savings and loan asso- 
ciations 3 


Individuals. . 


Total.. 


84 


100 


219, 499 


100 




' Includes H. O. L. C. owned properties. ' Includes 1 F. H. A. Insured mortgage. 
1 Less than 0.5 percent. 



Mortgage Status and Appraised Value 

Table 55 classifies all residential properties in District 
A by Divisions so as to show mortgage debt, depre- 
ciated value, and the ratio between the two. In pre- 
paring this table, unmortgaged properties were of 
course disregarded. 



Table No. 55 

MORTGAGE DEBT AND APPRAISED VALUE 

(Residential structures only) 


Division 


Total 
mortgage 
debt 


Total "as 
is" ap- 
praised 
value 


Percent 
debt to 
value 


1 


$35, 628 
8,660 
17, 829 
20, 146 
139, 827 


$61, 800 
27, 800 
78, 700 
100, 950 
390, 350 


58 
31 
22 
20 
33 


2 


3 


4 


5 


TotaL . 


222, 090 


659, 600 


34 





Division 1 (old, frame, badly maintained) again has 
the least favorable rating in the District, with its ratio 
of 1 : 2 of mortgage debt to the appraised value of the 
improvements which secure it. Division 4 (also old, 



82 



frame, but well maintained) stands highest, with a ratio 
of 1:5 of total mortgage debt to appraised value. 

The District's combined showing of a 1:3 ratio of 
encumbrances to security is a definite indication of its 
generally sound economic health. 

Mortgage Status and Reconditioning 

A careful survey of virtually any residential structure 
will disclose need for minor current repair. Since such 
repair usually involves a comparatively small expendi- 
ture and is generally completed without dangerous 
delay, its reasonable postponement almost never 
indicates a positive downward structural trend. In 
preparing the following tabluation, recommended 
repairs which were estimated to cost less than $200 per 
structure were, therefore, considered as only currently 
postponed and for the purpose of this calculation I lie 
affected properties were not classified as being in need of 
reconditioning. 



Table No. 56 

MORTGAGE STATUS AND NECESSARY 
RECONDITIONING 

(Residential structures only) 


Division 


Clear properties 


Mortgaged properties 


Num- 
ber of 
units 


Recon- 
dition- 
ing re- 
quired ' 


Per- 
cent 


Num- 
ber of 
units 


Recon- 
dition- 
ing re- 
quired ' 


Per- 
cent 


1 


17 
5 
14 
19 
57 


9 
5 

5 
1 


53 
100 

27 
2 


19 
6 
9 
7 
43 


8 
6 

1 



42 
100 

14 



2 


3 


4 


5 


TotaL _ 


112 


20 


18 


84 


15 


18 


1 Includes only properties on which repairs, etc.. costing more than $200 have 
been recommended. For detail, see table No. 36. 



Analysis developed several interesting facts relating 
to the structural status of mortgaged and unmortgaged 
properties. The low and identical over-all percentage 
of all mortgaged and clear homes needing major re- 
conditioning clearly indicates that no general "property 
milking process" is under way in the District. It is also 
clearly evident that, in similar structural types, the 
need for reconditioning is not related to mortgage status. 
Within each Division, the percentage of clear and 
mortgaged properties needing major repairs arc prac- 
tically identical, but as between the Divisions them- 
selves ratios varied greatly. Neighborhoods in which 
old frame structures predominate ranged from 14 
percent of needed repair in Division 4, to 100 percent in 






WAVERLYA STUDY 









Division 2. Of the 123 brick row houses in Divisions 
3 and 5, only one unit was found to require major 
reconditioning. 

Mortgage Status and Age 

It is quite apparent that age and mortgage status 
have little, if any, relationship, at least in District A. 
Division 1 which, structurally, is the oldest in the Dis- 
trict, makes one of the two least favorable showings of 
mortgaged to unmortgaged houses 57 percent. Divi- 
sion 4, next in age and in all ways similar to Division 1 
except that it is well maintained, makes the best 
showing in this respect, with but 27 percent of its homes 
encumbered. Comes then Division 2 likewise com- 
prising frame houses, as badly maintained as Division 1 
and of about the same age as Divisions 1 and 4 with a 
mortgage ratio of 54 percent, putting it at the very 
bottom of the list. 

That age plus a high degree of disrepair encourages 
a high mortgage ratio and that age plus a high degree 



Table No. 57 

MORTGAGE STATUS AND STRUCTURAL AGE 

(Residential structures only) 


Division 


Number 
of struc- 
tures 


Average 
age of 
struc- 
tures 


Number 
mort- 
gaged 


Percent 
mort- 
gaged 


1 


36 
11 
23 
26 
100 


53 
44 
25 
49 
17 


19 
6 
9 
7 
43 


53 
54 
39 
27 
43 


2 


3 


4 


5 . .: 


Total 


196 


30 


84 


43 





of maintenance encourages a low mortgage ratio, may 
be concluded from an examination of table No. 57. 

Foreclosures 

Information concerning foreclosures during the years 
1919-39, was obtained from the records in the Baltimore 
City Hall and Courthouse. 

District A's total foreclosure record of 13 percent for 
the 20-year period which includes the 1929-39 decade, 
indicates a sound community economic condition par- 
ticularly when it is contrasted with the best available 
national estimate of 16.7 percent for the past 14 years. 
Within the District, Division 4 shows the lowest ratio 
of foreclosed to total mortgaged properties, as might 
have been expected of an old established and well main- 
tamed neighborhood hi which occupancy is compara- 
tively constant. The record, however, does not permit 
wholly conclusive interdivisional deductions, because, 
in part at least, entirely accurate figures on this impor- 
tant subject were impossible to obtain from the City 
Hall, for the reasons given on page 21 of this report. 



Table No. 58 

FORECLOSURES 
(Residential structures only) 


Division 


Number 
of mort- 
gaged 
prop- 
erties 


Number 
of fore- 
closures 
1919-39 


Percent 
of fore- 
closures 
to mort- 
gages 


Average 
age of 
fore- 
closed 
prop- 
erties 


Average 
age of 
all prop- 
erties 


1 


19 


9 

7 
43 


1 
3 
1 

6 


5 
47 
11 

14 


49 
47 
27 

17 


53 

44 
25 
49 

17 


2 


3 


4 


5.- 


Total..- 


84 


11 


13 


29 


30 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



83 



APPENDIX B 



FINANCING SOURCES 

First-Mortgage Investors 

Approximately 60 percent of the residential struc- 
tures in Waverly are free of all encumbrance. In gen- 
eral, these properties are eligible as security for long- 
term, monthly payment, first mortgages, in amounts at 
least sufficient to cover the cost of the reconditioning 
which the Master Plan recommends for them. 

The existing loans on the approximately 40 percent 
of homes in the Area which are encumbered can fre- 
quently be refunded with a new mortgage which will 
cover not only the unpaid balance on the old lien but 
will also include the amount of the cost of rehabilita- 
tion. 

Because of the generally low ratio of lien to security, 
mortgages of either type should attract investment by 
local banks, mortgage bankers, savings and loan asso- 
ciations, and individual investors. Only if the cost of 
the repair program is considerable, however, will the 
incidental expense of a complete refinancing operation 
of this nature be warranted. 



F. H. A. Title II Insured Mortgages 

The Federal Housing Act authorizes the insurance of 
long-term first mortgages on existing residential struc- 
tures and such insurance can be used to enhance the 
marketability of eligible mortgages of either of the two 
types described above. 

Local Savings and Loan Associations 

Officers of these associations have stated that, if the 
Area seriously undertakes the contemplated conservation 
program, they will as a matter of sound business pol- 
icy increase any current mortgage which they hold, 
by an amount sufficient to finance the cost of recondi- 
tioning its security and that, in so doing, they will 
extend the final maturity date of the mortgage, 
so as to leave the amount of the monthly repayment 
installment undisturbed. 



F. H. A. Title I Insured Loans 

Under the amending act of June 3, 1939, the Federal 
Housing Administration continues Title I modernization 
loan insurance until July 1, 1941. The maximum per- 
missible financing cost that may be charged against the 
borrower may not be in excess of an amount equivalent 
to $5 discount per $100 original face amount of a 1-year 
note, payable in 12 equal monthly installments. The 
maximum amount of any one loan so insured is $2,500 ; 
the maximum repayment period for repair loans is 3 
years and 32 days; and the lending institution is now 
required to pay an annual premium charge of three- 
fourths of 1 percent on the net proceeds of any loan 
reported for insurance. Loans may be secured by se- 
nior or junior mortgage or may be evidenced by the 
unsecured note of the borrower. The act contains no 
provision for the payment of "prevailing wages" in 
connection with loans insured under Title I. 

Loans may be made for alterations, repairs, and 
additions to existing building, including 

(a) Painting, reroofing, repair, reconditioning, new stair- 
ways and floors, partition alterations, heating, lighting and 
plumbing installations, etc. 

(6) Conversion of an existing one-family house into a multiple- 
family dwelling. 

(c) Grading, landscaping, sewer connection, sidewalk and 
curb construction, etc., in connection with the land on which the 
building stands. 

The question of the financial status of the borrower is 
left, as a credit matter, to the reasonable judgment of 
the institution for which the loan is insured. 

Seven loan sources. Seven possible Baltimore sources 
of Title I insured loan funds, in volume sufficient to 
cover the aggregate cost of the home improvements 
and embellishment set up in the Master Plan, were 
examined. They included 

I. Federal savings and loan associations. 
II. State-chartered savings and loan associations. 

III. Commercial banks. 

IV. Personal loan banks. 

V. Commercial credit discount companies. 
VI. Insurance companies. 
VII. Manufacturers' finance units. 



84 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 



I. Federal savings and loan associations may loan 
their funds only to members and only on (a) the 
security of the member-borrower's share account; and 
(6) the security of a first lien upon improved real 
estate 1 or on a junior mortgage, if the association also 
holds the senior mortgage. 

Under these provisions, so far as the Waverly 
Conservation Program is concerned, Federal savings 
and loan associations can serve only 

1. The owner whose home was previously unencumbered 
and whose new first mortgage would represent the cost of 
rehabilitation. 

2. The owner whose property already carries a Federal 
association loan, which the lender is willing to increase by means 
of a junior mortgage, representing the cost of reconditioning. 

3. The owner, who, already having either a Federal savings 
and loan association mortgage or a non-Federal mortgage on his 
property, is willing to refinance his loan through a Federal 
association, so as to include the cost of his repairs under a new 
first lien. 

II. State-chartered associations. The statutes of 
Maryland place virtually no limitations on the type of 
security in which savings and loan associations, incor- 
porated under the laws of that State, may invest their 
funds; section 165, code article 23, as amended, indeed 
makes specific provision for investment in judgments 
and in mortgages of any type. In addition to 28 con- 
verted Federal and 9 insured State-chartered associa- 
tions, there are in Baltimore approximately 400 State- 
chartered savings and loan organizations which are 
legally able to make uninsured or F. H. A. Title I in- 
sured rehabilitation loans. 

III. Commercial banks. Three of the larger Baltimore 
commercial banks have been particularly active in 
making F. H. A. Title I insured loans. Two of them 
operate subsidiary institutions, primarily designed to 
handle these accounts, and all have already made such 
loans to Waverly owners. The loan officer of each 
bank stated that his institution will welcome business 
of this type. While reasonable safeguards are imposed, 
ordinary commercial credit standards are probably 
somewhat relaxed in the case of Title I insured loans, 
pursuant to F. H. A. regulations covering eligibility, 
which make acceptable "a reasonable credit risk, in 
view of the insurance provided by the National Housing 
Act." It may be assumed that the three institutions 
referred to will be willing to consider applications for 
advances to finance the cost of at least a large part of 
the private property improvements included in the 
Waverly Master Plan. 

IV. Personal loan banks. The largest of the so-called 
Morris Plan banks has been particularly active in solic- 
iting business of this type. It advertises and actively 
canvasses for it through a corps of outside employee 
solicitors, not only among contractors but also among 

i Under present practice a Maryland mortgage lien, subject only to a long-term 
renewable ground lease, is classed as a first mortgage. 



owners who intend to contract their work or perform it 
themselves. 

V. Commercial credit discount companies. Two na- 
tional commercial credit discount companies advertise 
for Title I business throughout the United States. For 
this purpose, they prepare original advertising matter, 
which they supply in large volume to building material 
and equipment manufacturers, for subsequent distribu- 
tion to the latter's dealers. They service both manu- 
facturers and dealers and their facilities will thus be 
available to Waverly owners indirectly. 

VI. Insurance companies. Since virtually none of 
the properties in the Area is subject to insurance com- 
pany encumbrances, it is not probable that Waverly 
owners can have any considerable recourse to such 
companies for funds with which to make repairs. 

VII. Manufacturers' finance units.- In order to stim- 
ulate the market for their products, certain manufac- 
turers of building material and supplies, having a 
national distribution, have set up finance units which 
purchase customers' F. H. A. Title I insured notes, pre- 
viously acquired by their dealers. The plan under 
which these units operate originally required the con- 
sumer to use at least 25 percent of the proceeds of his 
note to purchase the products of the manufacturer pro- 
viding the service. This requirement is now being 
relaxed, however, both because the retailer, and conse- 
quently the manufacturer, is benefited by a less rigid 
policy and also because the financing operation is, in 
itself, profitable to the latter. It is probable, therefore, 
that the notes of home owners, otherwise eligible, will 
be increasingly acceptable to these units, without any 
reference to the percentage of the proceeds devoted to 
the purchase of materials and supplies. 

SECTION 207 OF THE NATIONAL HOUSING ACT 

Provision is made under Section 207 of the National 
Housing Act for the insurance of 4K-percent, monthly 
amortized, first-mortgage loans to Federal, State, 
municipal, limited dividend and private corporations, 
and to associations or cooperative societies which are 
the legal agents of groups of home owners, for the pur- 
pose of rehabilitating slum and blighted areas. The 
Act defines slum and blighted areas as those in which 
dwellings predominate that, by reason of dilapidation, 
overcrowding, faulty arrangement or design, lack of 
ventilation, light or sanitary facilities, or any combina- 
tion of these factors, are detrimental to safety, health, 
or morals. 

Loans under Section 207 may not be for more than 
80 percent of the value of the security, may not exceed 
a total of $100,000 under any one mortgage, and must 
mature within a period set by the Administrator. 
Monthly installment repayments must include not 
only accrued interest and a reduction of mortgage 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



85 



principal but also one-twelfth of the annual cost of 
mortgage premiums, taxes, fire and other hazard in- 
surance premiums, ground rents and special assess- 
ments, if any. 

At least one-half of the mortgage proceeds must be 
expended for the rehabilitation of the subject property. 

In single-family, residential neighborhoods like 
Waverly, to become eligible for a rehabilitation advance 
under Section 207, the owners of at least 16 residential 
structures must transfer their titles to a fiduciary agent 



acting for their common benefit. Such agent negoti- 
ates the new mortgage loan on the security of the 
joint property for an amount sufficient to extinguish 
existing encumbrances and pay the anticipated cost of 
rehabilitation; completes such rehabilitation; leases 
each property back to its former owner; and, from the 
rental thereafter from time to time collected, makes 
monthly payments of principal, interest, taxes, and 
premiums, as stipulated in the over-all mortgage instru- 
ment. 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 




APPENDIX C 



PROPOSED LEGISLATION 

Pressure for the enactment of neighborhood stabiliza- 
tion and rehabilitation legislation, such as that described 
above, indicates a widening consciousness of the part 
conservation must play in the solution of the national 
housing problem. 

1. I '/'ban Redevelopment Corporations Act. The New 
York Legislature recently enacted a bill which author- 
izes the creation of "redevelopment corporations" in 
that State. This act is intended to provide nonspecu- 
lative investment opportunities for private capital, in 
a new field, by setting up a limited partnership between 
these newly authorized corporations and municipalities 
in which are depreciated areas suitable, for rehabilitation. 

It is not a housing bill and contemplates no public 
subsidy, but seeks to establish a mechanism by which 
private corporations can rebuild blighted urban areas 
in harmony with their logical use. By regulating their 
plans for area development through the local city plan- 
ning commission, and their financial set-up and manage- 
ment through a municipal supervising agency, the 
measure would subject these corporations to public 
control. 

The bill does not require immediate demolition and 
reconstruction, but permits gradual redevelopment over 
a period of years, pursuant to a definite, predetermined 
and approved program. It recognizes the possibility 
that the sound redevelopment of a given area may 
result in predominantly commercial or industrial use; 
assumes that the necessity for synchronizing the re- 
development program with the master plan of the city 
will effect proper coordination between that program 
and all other housing projects, including public housing; 
and, foreseeing that a redeveloped area may properly 
includc housing accommodations in any rental classifi- 
cation, sets no rental limitations on the accommoda- 
tions which may be provided by a redevelopment cor- 
poration, relying upon an enlightened management's 
competent appraisal of the economic demand to 
provide an adequate regulator. 

After a corporation has obtained control of 60 percent 
of the property in the area to be developed, measured 



by assessed valuation, it has the power of condemnation 
in assembling the balance. Tax exemption may be 
granted for not to exceed 10 years, on an amount equal 
to the value of the improvements made in the area after 
the corporation undertook the project. Dividends are 
limited to 5 percent during the period when partial tax 
exemption is thus enjoyed. Thereafter, dividends will 
not be limited, but any such payments, in excess of 5 
percent, are subject to a 50-percent city tax. 

Subsequent to its passage by the New York Legisla- 
ture, the Urban Kedevelopment Corporations Act was 
vetoed by the Governor, with the recommendation that 
the Commission of Housing and the New York City 
administration, both of which opposed this legislation, 
and the real estate groups which favored it, draft a 
mutually satisfactory measure for submission at the 
next legislative session. 

2. Neighborhood Improvement Act. In several States, 
the legislative adoption of a statute generally referred 
to as the Neighborhood Improvement Act, has recently 
been urged by organizations and individuals interested 
in the control of urban blight. As proposed, the statute 
seeks legally to implement that portion of the "cure by 
prevention" remedy, described in this report, which 
relates to land use, street pattern, landscaping and other 
problems common to all persons residing in a given 
neighborhood. The text of the proposed Act is given 
below : 

SEC. 1. Title. 

This act may hereafter be referred to as The Neigh- 
borhood Improvement Act. 
SEC. 2. Definitions. 

As used in this act: (a) The term "city" shall mean 
any duly incorporated city, town or village; (6) the 
term "planning commission" shall refer to any officially 
constituted board, body, commission or committee 
normally charged with the duty of preparing master 
plans for orderly city development; (c) the term "gov- 
erning body of the city" shall mean the city council, 
board of aldermen, city trustees, or other body having 
the power to pass ordinances and resolutions and to 
otherwise legislate concerning city affairs; (d) the term 
"privately owned land" shall mean all land not held by 
governmental bodies for public purposes. 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSER VA TION 



81 



SEC. 3. Method of Determining Neighborhood Areas. 

The planning commission of any city may, for the pur- 
pose of making the provisions of this act available, 
prepare a plan of the city dividing all or part of the city 
into neighborhood areas in conformity with the official 
city plan. A report showing such division shall be pre- 
sented upon request to the governing body of the city 
and when approved by them shall constitute the defini- 
tion and boundaries of neighborhood areas for the pur- 
poses of this act: Provided, however, That no plan of 
neighborhood areas shall be adopted, nor shall any 
individual neighborhood area be defined as hereafter 
provided until after a public hearing in relation thereto, 
at which parties in interest and citizens shall have an 
opportunity to be heard. At least fifteen (15) days' 
notice of the time and place of such hearing shall be pub- 
lished in any official paper, or a paper of general circu- 
lation, in such municipality. 

In a city where no planning commission exists the 
governing body of a city may adopt a plan of neighbor- 
hood areas after public notice and hearing as provided 
in this section. Should the governing body of any city 
fail to request th planning commission to prepare a plan 
of neighborhood areas, or should any planning commis- 
sion fail to prepare and present such a plan to the 
governing body of the city within sixty days after having 
been requested to do so in writing by the governing body 
or by five (5) percent or more of the owners of real prop- 
erty within the city limits, or should the governing 
body of the city fail to accept such a plan within ninety 
(90) days after it is presented to them, then and there- 
after the owners of twenty-five (25) percent of the 
privately owned land in any area designated by them, 
may in writing signed by each of them and presented 
to the governing body of the city, bound and define such 
area as a neighborhood area within the meaning of this 
act. 

SEC. 4. Creation of Neighborhood Area Development 
Plan. 

The owners of sixty (60) percent of the area of pri- 
vately owned land in any duly constituted neighborhood 
area may, in writing, present to the governing body 
of the city a plan for the development and restriction 
of such neighborhood area. Such a plan may, among 
other things, provide for: 

(a) Zoning or rezoning. 

(b) Improvement and alteration of major and minor 

streets. 

(c) Parks, playgrounds, and public recreational 

facilities. 

(d) Neighborhood planting and landscaping. 

(e) Location of all public utilities. 
(/) Building restrictions. 

(0) Progressive elimination of nonconforming uses. 

In cities having a planning commission, the governing 
body of the city shall refer such plan for the develop- 
ment and restriction of the neighborhood to the planning 
commission which must make a report thereon to the 
governing body of the city within ninety days after 
receiving such plan. Failure to make such a report 
within that time shall be deemed to constitute approval 
of the plan. The governing body of the city may then 
accept or reject such plan after giving consideration to 
the report of the planning commission, and after public 
hearing and published notice as provided in section 3 
for the plan of neighborhood areas. When accepted, 



88 



the plan shall constitute the official plan of the neighbor- 
hood area involved. 

SEC. 5. Publication of the Plan. 

Any duly adopted neighborhood plan shall then be 
published by the governing body of the city by mailing 
a copy of such plan to each property owner residing 
within the affected neighborhood area, and by posting 
a copy of such plan in several reasonably distributed 
public places within such neighborhood area. 

Thirty days after such publication, such plan shall 
become effective and shall have the full force and effect 
of an ordinance or resolution duly enacted by the gov- 
erning body of the city. It may thereafter be amended 
and exceptions made to its operation by the same pro- 
cess by which it was adopted originally. 

SEC. 6. Appeal. 

Any property owner in a neighborhood area for which 
a neighborhood plan has been adopted may, within one 
year after the publication of such plan, petition a court 
having jurisdiction over the property involved, to stay 
the execution or effect of the plan as to him. Notice of 
filing of such petition shall be duly served on the govern- 
ing body of the city and notice thereof placed in a news- 
paper of common circulation in the neighborhood area 
involved. In the action on such petition, the official 
representative of the city, and any property owner in the 
neighborhood area involved shall be entitled to be hoard. 
Should the court decide, after hearing, that the plan is 
unreasonable as to the petitioning property owner, it 
may issue an order restraining the operation or effect 
of the plan as to the petitioning property owner. The 
force and effect of the plan shall not otherwise be affec- 
ted unless the court shall affirmatively find that so 
restrained, the general effect and force of the plan is so 
altered as to make it an undue variation of the original 
plan no longer able reasonably to accomplish the result 
sought in the original plan. 

SEC. 7. Execution of the Plan. 

Restrictions and regulations as to the use of the prop- 
erty within the neighborhood area to which any plan 
applies set forth in the plan shall apply and be enforced 
within such area in the same manner as if contained in 
city ordinances. 

To the extent that the plan calls for construction of 
improvements or condemnation of private property, 
the governing body of the city shall set its duly consti- 
tuted machinery in motion to accomplish such improve- 
ments or condemnation in the same manner as if the city 
were engaging in construction of improvements or 
condemnation of property for any proper municipal pur- 
pose. Benefits shall be similarly assessed and collected. 

SEC. 8. Organization of Neighborhood Associations. 

In order to provide an organization by which property 
owners in any neighborhood area may create and amend 
plans for neighborhood improvement and otherwise 
avail themselves of the rights granted in this act, such 
property owners may organize themselves into a neigh- 
borhood improvement association. Such neighborhood 
associations shall be organized by filing with the secre- 
tary or clerk of the governing body of the city, a set of 
articles of organization duly signed by the owners of at 
least twenty-five (25) percent of the privately owned 
land within the neighborhood area for which the neigh- 
borhood association is being organized. Such articles 
of organization shall state: 

(a) The name of the neighborhood improvement 
association. 

WAVERLYA STUDY IN 






(&) The boundaries of the neighborhood area in- 
volved. 

(c) The names of the original officers and trustees of 
said association. 

The officers of such association shall consist of a board 
of trustees of five (5) owners of real property within the 
neighborhood area involved and a secretary and a treas- 
urer who shall also be owners of real property within 
the neighborhood area involved. Each officer and 
trustee shall serve for a term of one year and until his 
successor has been elected and qualifies. Failure of any 
officer or trustee to continue to own real property 
within the neighborhood area involved shall ipso facto 
disqualify said person to hold office. 

Vacancies in any office may be filled at any time by 
special election. 



Meetings shall be held at least once a year and on 
such other occasions as the association may agree. At 
all meetings of the association, each member shall be 
entitled to a number of votes bearing a proportion to 
the total number of votes set for all members which the 
area of land owned by him bears to the total area of the 
land owned by all of the members of the association. 

The association may assess its members to cover the 
expenses of carrying on the business of the association. 

The trustees of the association may, for the purposes 
of this act, sign papers for and on behalf of all of the 
members of the association, which signatures, when ac- 
companied by a certified copy of the minutes of the 
meeting of the association authorizing such signature, 
shall have the same force and effect as if the papers 
signed by the trustees were signed by each of the mem- 
bers of the association separately and individually. 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



89 



APPENDIX D 



STREET ADJUSTMENTS 

Following is a description, justification, and cost 
estimate of the street opening, paving and widening, 
conversion and closing embodied in the Master Conser- 
vation Plan for Waverly. 

Drawing No. 33 shows the recommended ncwstreets; 
No. 34 locates those on which paving is necessary; 
and No. 35 indicates the recommended street conver- 
sions and closings. 

STREET OPENING 

PROJECT No. 1. NEW STREET EXTENSION OF DUM- 
BARTON AVENUE FROM INTERSECTION OF PROPOSED 
NEW SECTION OF ELLERSLIE AVENUE FOLLOWING THE 
PRECIPICE IN A NORTHERLY DIRECTION ONE BLOCK 
BEYOND BELGIAN AVENUE 

Priority A 

A. Necessity. 

1. To provide full use of present land without excess 
amount of fill. 

2. To avoid uneconomical use of land which might 
seem difficult to build upon. 

B. Advantages. 

1. This opening will provide possible chance for a 
more harmonious development of semi-detached homes 
with an informal treatment to harmonize with the 
already well planned development across the boulevard 
on Alameda Avenue. 

2. It will permit increased home site use of a section 
which normally might be considered as a back yard 
treatment. 

3. It will create increased land values, on which 
returns to the owner and the city would be greater than 
if the land was lying idle because of its unusually 
poor condition. 

C. Cost 

1. The cost of this street opening including concrete 
paving, curbs, and gutters, and sidewalks has been 
estimated at $13,000, exclusive of possible land ac- 
quisition. 

2. The probable land acquisition cost is estimated at 
$8,700 which is the present assessed value for the entire 



property affected by this opening, and not merely the 
portion taken. It is reasonable to expect that the 
actual acquisition cost would be considerably smaller 
when the value of the remaining portion of land is 
taken into consideration. 

Block 3913-A and 392H-A Dumbarton Ave. extension from 
Ellerslie Ave. to one block north of Belgian Ave. 

30' concrete paving, curbs, and 
gutter. 

960' X 30' = 3,733 sq. yd. at $3 $11, 200 

9 
1,820 lin. ft. of sidewalk at $1.. 1, 820 

Construction cost of street 813,020 

Probable land acquisition cost 8, 700 

Total cost of street improvement, approximate- $21, 720 

PROJECT No. 2. OPENING AND PAVING OF ELLERSLIE 
AVENUE FROM CATOR TO PEN LUCY AVENUE 

Priority A 

A. Necessity. 

1. The need for opening of this street was originally 
perceived in 1906, at which time the city recognized 
the desirability of such action. 

2. Only street now permitting through traffic is 
Wilsby Avenue, a 19-foot side street hardly ample to 
care for future traffic. 

3. Only outlet is three blocks west to Greenmount 
Avenue. None toward the east as all eastward streets 
hardly can materialize due to the contours of the land. 

4. Necessary to have bus line circulate through the 
upper area north of Pen Lucy. 

5. To provide bypass to Alameda Avenue. 

B. Advantages. 

1. This opening will more than offset the construction 
and acquisition cost as it will create new frontage capa- 
ble of caring for approximately 18 structures. 

2. It will be beneficial to both owners of adjacent land 
as well as to the city because of better assessment re- 
turn for new frontages created. 

3. It makes for a logical connection of the street sys- 
tem south of Pen Lucy Avenue now contemplated by 
private builders. 

4. It also permits the use of otherwise hemmed -in 
properties now lost assets to the owners and a burden 
to the city. 



WAVERL\~A STUDY IN 



C. Cost. 

1. Cost of construction of new and paving of old 
portion of the street (includes grading, concrete paving, 
curbs, gutters, and necessary utilities) is estimated 
at $13,440. 

2. The value of the first-class usage that this frontage 
produces should more than offset the cost of this street. 







RECOMMENDED STREET OPENINGS 



Drawing No. 33 



3. The probable land acquisition is estimated at 
$25,260, which is the present assessed value for the 
entire property, and not merely the portion taken. It 
is reasonable to expect that the actual acquisition cost 
would be considerably smaller when the value of the 
remaining portion of the land is taken into consideration; 

Paving Block 3925- A 

a. Ellerslie Ave. from Cator Ave. to 

Belgian Ave. 30' paving. 
6. 30' paving, curb, and gutters. 



$4, 915 



= 1|865 gq yd at 

$3 ___________ $4,095 



820' new sidewalk at $!. 



820 



Total cost of construction $4, 915. 

New Street Block 3923-A 



a. Ellerslie Ave. from Dumbarton to 

Cator Ave. providing a 30' street. 
6. 30' paving, curb, and gutters. 

375> Q X3Q: = 1.250 sq. yd. at 

$3 $3,750 

750' of sidewalk at $1 750 

375' of sewer at $2.50 937 

Total cost of construction 5, 437 

c. Land acquisition approximately $9, 760 

Total cost of street 15, 197 

New Street Block 3922 

a. Extension of Ellerslie Ave. from 

Dumbarton to Pen Lucy Ave. 
6. 3.0' paving, curbs, and gutters. 

215'X30' = 717 gq yd at $3 _ $2) 151 
y 

430' of sidewalk at $1 430 

215' of sewer at $2.50 537 

Total cost of construction 3, 118 

c. Land acquisition 15, 500 

Total cost of street 18, 618 

Total construction cost for project 

No. 2... 13, 470 

Total land acquisition cost project 
No. 2 .... 25,260 

Total cost of project 38,730 



PROJECT No. 
STREET FROM 



3. OPENING OF THIRTY-SEVENTH 
OLD YORK ROAD TO GREENMOUNT 
AVENUE 

Priority B 

A. Necessity. 

1. The need for opening of this street was originally 
perceived in 1906, by the G. W.Bromley Survey at which 
time the city recognized the desirability of such action. 

2. Adjoining streets to the north and south, viz., 
Thirty-sixth and Thirty-eighth Streets, do not permit 
through traffic. 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



91 



3. East and West streets in Waverly are laid out on 
an irregular basis, which does not allow direct access 
to the car line on Greenmount Avenue. 

4. Due to the irregularities of the entire minor street 
pattern, the main north and south feeder for the area 
(Old York Road) is of little value as it affords only 
one-way traffic north and is too narrow to care for two 
ways unless, of course, parking could be taken off the 
street. 

B. Advantages. 

1. This street opening would afford a direct bypass 
between Greenmount Avenue and Ellerslic Avenue. 

2. It divides the block, which at the present time is of 
unusual length. 

3. It makes a logical connection with the street 
system west of Greenmount Avenue. 

4. It creates valuable new frontage for the area that 
is located in the interior of the block. 

5. It will result in an increase in the city's income. 

C. Cost. 

1. Cost of constructing this street, including grading, 
concrete paving, curbs, gutters, sidewalks and utilities 
is estimated at $5,500, exclusive of land acquisition. 

2. The value of the usable frontage developed should 
offset a considerable portion of the above cost. 

3. The probable land acquisition cost is estimated at 
$35,000 which is the present assessed value for the 
entire areas of properties affected by this opening, and 
not merely the portion taken. It is reasonable to 
expect that the actual acquisition cost would be con- 
siderably smaller when the value of the remaining 
portion of the land is taken into consideration. 

New Street Block 4048-A 

a. 37th Street frcm Old York Road to 

Greenmount Avenue. 
6. 30' paving, curb, and gutters. 

500^X26' = 1)500 gq yd at $3 $4 - 00 

9 

450' of 8" sewer at $2.50 1, 125 

1,000' of sidewalk at $1 1, 000 

Total cost of construction $6, 625 

c. Land acquisition . 35,800 



Total cost of street $42, 425 

PROJECT No. 4. OPENING or FRISBY STREET FROM 
EAST THIRTY-THIRD STREET TO BELGIAN AVENUE 

Priority A 
A. Necessity. 

1. The need for the opening of this street was orig- 
inally recognized in 1906 by the G. W. Bromley Survey, 
at which time the city officially recognized the desira- 
bility of such action. 

2. In 1914, further consideration was given by the 
city to open Frisby Street from East Thirty-third to 
Thirty-fourth Street, by J. W. Shirley, chief engineer for 
the Topographic Survey Commission. 



3. In 1926 the city proposed and acquired land for 
the opening of Frisby Street from Thirty-third to 
Thirty-fourth Street, but to date no action has been 
taken as to construction of same. 

4. The population growth in this area has more than 
exceeded the predictions for 1940 as shown in the Olm- 
stead report of 1926. 

B. Advantages, 

1. This street opening will afford a complete servic- 
ing of the entire section of Waverly between East 
Thirty-third and Cold Spring Drive, and take care 
of the traffic congestion on Greenmount Avenue, as 
well as the confusion on Old York Road where traffic 
is routed only "one-way" north. 

2. This project could hardly be considered a dis- 
turbance to the adjacent property owners as no build- 
ings are fronting on this street except in two places 
where new construction will occur. 

3. Frontage is added in two locations which will 
prove beneficial to the city. 

C. Cost 

1. Cost of construction for the opening of this street, 
including grading, concrete, paving, curbs, and gutters 
and sidewalks plus any sewers that may be necessary 
is estimated at $26,580 exclusive of land acquisition. 

2. The increased value to the entire neighborhood 
should more than offset the cost of this street. 

3. The probable land acquisition cost is estimated at 
$73,940 which is the present assessed value for the 
entire property, and not merely the portion taken. 
It is reasonable to expect that the. actual acquisition 
cost would be considerably smaller when the value of 
the remaining portion of the land is taken into con- 
sideration, and particularly those sections where the 
values will be increased. 

New street block 4053 and 4050-B 
Frisby St. from 33d St. to 35th St. 
(30-foot street) 

a. Paving, curb, and gut- 
ters, 2,800 sq. yd at $3-.$8, 400 

6. Sidewalks, 1,680 sq. ft. at 

$!._ .__ 1,680 



Total cost of construction $10, 080 

Land condemnation proceedings 

between 34th and 35th Sts 

Total construction and land__ 



$13, 000 



$23, 080 



New Street Block 3921-B 

a. Extension of Frisby St. from 
Chestnut Hill to Parkwyrtli 
Ave. 30' roadbed, curbs, and 
gutter. 

260' X 30' 

- = 867 sq. yd. at 

$3 $2,601 

520' of sidewalk at $1.. 520 



92 



WAVERLY A STUDY IN 



Total cost of construction $3, 121 



PAVING AND WIDENING 



6. Land acquisition $7,100 

Total cost of street improve- PROJECT No. 1. VENABLE AVENUE PAVING FROM 

mcnt -- - $10 ' 221 OLD YORK ROAD TO ALLEY WEST or WESTERWALD 

_A VF'NTTP' 

New Street Block 3921-A 

a. Extension of Frisby St. from Park- Priority A 

wyrth to 38th St. 30' roadbed, 
curbs, and gutter. A . Necessity 

2urjx30' 1. This street paving will permit proper utilization 

A /uu sq. vu. JIL . 

$3 $2,100 of the abutting properties now standing vacant. 

420' of new sidewalk at $1_ 420 2. Necessary to relieve traffic congestion now pre- 
vailing upon east- and west-bound Thirty-third and 

Total cost of construction.. 2,520 Thirty-fourth Streets. 

6. Land acquisition. _ 9,300 T> ... 

T, , B. Advantages. 

Total cost of street improve- . , 

ine nt._ 11,820 1- ^ his will provide possibilities of additional new 

structures to individual landowners' benefit as well as 

Paving Block 3919 and 3920 ,, ., 

,,.,,. to the city. 

Frisby St. J 

2. It will prove beneficial to the entire neighborhood 

a. Resetting of property lines and for severa l blocks around, 

paving between Wyanoke and O /"* / 

TI T . X_v" . t/OSt . 

Pen Lucy Ave. .... 

1. I he cost of this improvement has been estimated 
6. 30' paving, curbs, and gutters. to be $10 100. 

OQO' -y On' 

= 1,275 sq. yd. 2. This cost will more than be offset by the addi- 

Q+ 'C*^ Q'i S*?~ 

tional return to the city created by this improvement. 
764 new sidewalk at $!__ 764 

Total cost of construction __ 4, 589.. 4, 589 Block tfBOVenable Ave. To Be Paved From Old York Rd. to 

New Street Block 39%% Alle1 J West "/ W^sterwald Ave. 

a. Extension of Frisby St. from 24 ' P avin S- including curb and gutters. 

Wyanoke to Dumbarton Am 1,947 sq. yd. at $3. _ .$5,841 

1,462 lin. ft. of sidewalk at $1 1, 462 

b. 30' paving, curbs, and gutters. 

22j>'X3(V_ Construction cost of street . $7,303 

9 '^3' ' 2 250 Land proceedings for relocation of street. . 2,800 

Total cost of construction. _ 2, 250 

Total cost of improvement $10, 103 

c. Land acquisition 16,860 

Total cost of street improve- 
ment 19,110 PROJECT No. 2. PAVING AND WIDENING OF CHEST- 
NUT HILL AVENUE FROM OLD YORK ROAD TO FRISBY 
New street clock SaHS _ 

STREET 
a. Frisby St. from Dumbarton to 

Cator Ave., providing a 30' Priority A 

street. 

A. Necessity. 

'' soVxso"' 8 ' C ' L The paving and widcnin S have bcm recognized 

g =1,000 sq. yd. by the city and official condemnation plot for the 

iit $3 . t!>3, 000 ... . 

-, . . ,, widening prepared. 

600' sidewalk at $1 bOO 

2. W ill accelerate greatly the demand for new con- 
Total cost of construction 3, 600 struction on that street. 

c. Land acquisition. . 27, 680 ^ S * r f et nOW Onlv 18 feet wide tO become 26 feet " 

Total cost of street improve- 15 - Advantages 

ment__ 31,280 I.Will increase the city's and owners' income by 

means of rapid development along the abutting prop- 

Total street improvement erties on that streeti 

cost.. 20,160 c Cost _ 

Total probable land acquisi- 
tion cost.. 73,940 rn e cost> ' tuls paving lias been estimated, in- 

Total cost of street improve- eluding curbs, gutters, concrete paving and sidewalk 

ments.- . 100,100 at $5,040. 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



93 



Block 404-9-B Chestnut Hill Ave. From Old York Ed. to Inter- 
section of Frisby St. 

480'X26' 



9 



-=1,360 sq. yd at $3 $4, 080 



960'of sidewalk at $1. 



960 



Total cost of paving $5,040 

PROJECT No. 3. PAVING OF WYANOKE AVENUE 

FROM OLD YORK ROAD TO EAST BLOCK OF WILSBY 

AVENUE 

Priority A 

A. Necessity. 

1. Entire street in quite poor condition; macadam 
surfacing, no curb and gutter, sidewalk very poor. 

2. Street has not been maintained for some time. 

B. Advantages. 

1. The improvement of this street will greatly accel- 
erate the furtherance of ownership improvements which 
in turn will be beneficial to the city. 

C. Cost. 

1. The "cost of this paving, widening curbs, gutters, 
sidewalk and concrete paving, has been estimated at 
$8,900. 

Wyanoke Avenue 

24' paving, curbs, and gutters. 

904' X 24' 
g = 2,366 square yards, at $3 $7, 098 

1,808' of sidewalk, at $1 1,808 



Total cost of paving $8, 906 

PROJECT No. 4. PAVING OF DUMBARTON AVENUE 

FROM | ALLEY EAST OF WILSBY AVENUE TO NEW 

INTERSECTION OF ELLERSLIE AVENUE 

Priority A 

A. Necessity. 

1. This section has never been paved, thus retarding 
the growth tremendously. 

2. It will only be useful providing Ellerslie Avenue 
is extended to Pen Lucy Avenue. 

B. Advantages. 

1. The improvement of this street will create in- 
creased values to the abutting "properties, thus creating 
an additional income to the City. 

C. CosL- 

1. The cost of paving, including curbs, gutters, and 
sidewalks, has been estimated at $4,276 and will more 
than be offset by the increased use of otherwise idle 
land, giving no return to the owners as "well as to the 
city. 

Block S92S-A Dumbarton Ave. 
24' concrete paving, curbs, and gutters. 

428' X 24' 
' g =1,140 square yards, at $3 $3, 420 

856' of sidewalk, at $1_. 856 



Total cost of improvement $4, 276 



PROJECT No. 5. PAVING OF CATOR AVENUE, EAST 

FORTY-FIRST STREET, AND BELGIAN AVENUE, 150 FEET 

EAST OF ELLERSLIE AVENUE 

Priority A 

A. Necessity. 

1. To facilitate immediate improvements of abuttin 
properties. 

2. At present Cator and East Forty-first have poo 
surfacing and need new paving. 

3. Belgian Avenue at present unimproved at this 
point. 

B. Advantages 

1. This will provide possibility for additional utiliz 
tion of land in a remunerative way, both to the own 
and the city. 





RECOMMENDED STREET PAVING 



Drawing No. 34 



94 



WAVERLYA STUDY IN 



j. .ij* 



2. The possibility of creating a more modern com- 
munity life. 

C. Cost 

1. The cost of this improvement has been estimated 
at $4,950, which will more than offset the increased 
value to the abutting properties as well as to the sur- 
rounding area and to the city. 

Hclgian Avenue 

a. 30' paving 150' east of the corner of Ellerslie 
Ave. Concrete paving, curbs, and gutters. 

b 1 50' ~X SO' 

= 500 sq. yd. at $3 ____ . $1,500 

150' of sidewalk at $1 _________ 150 

Total street paving ______ . $1,650 

East 41st Street 

a. 30' paving 150' east of the corner of Ellerslie 
Ave. Concrete paving, curl's, and gutters. 

^-^ = 500sq. yd. at $3_- -$1,500 



150' of sidewalk at $1. 



150 



Total street paving 1,650 

Cator Avenue 

a. 30' paving 150' east of the corner of Kllerslie 
Ave. Concrete paving, curbs, and gutters. 

'- = 500sq. yd. at $3-. _ $1, 500 



9 
150' of sidewalk at $1. 



150 



Total street paving 1, 650 



Total cost of improvement.- - $4,950 

STREET CONVERSIONS 

PROJECT No. 1. CONVERSION OF WILSBY AVENUE 
FROM CATOR TO WYANOKE AVENUES 



Priority C 



A. 



1. Too narrow for two-way traffic, only 19 feet wide. 
As parking is permitted on both sides of the street, it 
is impossible for other cars to pass there. 

2. Street and curb in need of repairs and it is not a 
through north-bound street. 

3. Danger to children playing in the street between 
parked cars. 

B. Advantages. 

1. As the distance between present houses amounts 
to 89 feet face to face, it will provide an excellent park 
strip between these homes open to pedestrians only. 

2. The servicing of the existing homes to be done 
through the rear alleys. 

3. This will create ideal play and sitting-out areas 
for both young and old people, and particularly safe 
for the children of the preschool age, permitting proper 
supervision by their mothers. 



4. This proposal will also help to ease the present 
lack of play-space facilities in tins section. 

5. It will also help toward creating a better neighbor- 
hood; thus will become an increased asset to the city. 

C. Cost. 

1. Conversion cost of this street, which includes 
proper grading, additional new concrete walks, neces- 
sary catch basins for proper drainage and landscaping, 
is estimated at $3,000. 

2. The sociological value to the individual owners as 
well as to the city, particularly from a health stand- 
point, should more than offset the construction cost of 
this conversion. 

3. The cost of resurfacing of the present street with 
some possible widening would be greater, yet of no 
value to this section, and the chance for a better com- 
munity court would be lost to the abutting property 
owners and their children. 

Block S022-A 

a. Wilsby Ave. from Wyanoke to Dumbarton 
Ave. Provide park strip for pedestrian use 
only. 

6. 252/ 9 X3 ' = 831 sq. yd. at $1.70..-- - $1,412 

Block 3f>23 

a. Wilsby Ave. from Dumbarton to Cator Ave. 
Provide park strip for pedestrian use only. 

6. - g -=960 sq. yd. at $1.70 1, 632 

Total construction cost $3, 044 



PROJECT No. 2. CONVERSION OF LOWNDES AVENUE 
FROM WYANOKE TO PEN LUCY AVENUES 

Priority C 

A. Necessity. 

1. In very bad need of new paving but of little value 
to the neighborhood. 

2. Creates a traffic hazard due to its steep grade, 
particularly in the wintertime. 

B. Advantages. 

1. This conversion would give the owners a much 
more desirable frontage. 

2. Will create sitting-out park area for the owners in 
this block. 

3. Will create play space for the preschool children 
in the block, free from the hazard of traffic. 

C. Cost. 

1. Cost of conversion of this street, including addi- 
tional sidewalks, landscaping, proper drainage facilities, 
is estimated at $3,000. 

2. On the other hand the cost of repairing pavement 
and sidewalks has been estimated at $4,000. From a 
community life standpoint, however, the conversion 
would be of far greater advantage to the owners. 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



95 



Block S9ZO 

a. Provide park strip for pedestrian use only. 
6. Landscaping, sidewalks, and necessary drainage 

facilities. 
252'X40'=l,120sq. yd. at $2.68 $3,000 

n ___ . 

Total cost of street conversion, approximately $3, 000 

STREET CLOSINGS 

PROJECT No. 1. CLOSING OF WESTER WALD AVENUE 
FROM THIRTY-FOURTH TO THIRTY-FIFTH STREETS 

Priority A 

A. Necessity 

1. This street is located between two play areas, 
closed most of the time to provide safe play for the 
children. 





RECOMMENDED STREET CONVERSION 
AND CLOSING 

Drawins No. 35 



2. Playground used all day; in the morning by 
school, afternoon by the Playground Athletic League 
for supervised play. 

3. Present playground large enough for boys but not 
adequate to provide space for girls' play at the same 
time. Girls play in the street when closed off. 

B. Advantages. 

1. The closing of this street will provide adequate 
play space for the girls. 

2. It will remove the hazard for play purposes of 
drivers uninformed of the practice of closed streets. 

3. It will unite playground facilities. 

C. Cost.- 

1. The cost of closing this street involves a sum of 
$600 for closing proceedings by the city. 

PROJECT No. 2. CLOSING OF TINGES LANE FROM 
THIRTY-FOURTH STREET TO VENABLE AVENUE 

Priority A 

A. Necessity. 

1. This lane is at present nothing more than an open 
path, not paved, yet occupies land which could have 
better use. 

2. Necessary to be closed in order to unite present 
properties and to omit having too much land for street 
and alley use which in time will prove cumbersome to 
the city. 

B. Advantages. 

1. With the closing of this lane the adjacent owners 
will receive half each of the present land now used for 
Tinges Lane or approximately 1,200 feet which, in 
accordance with the land-use restriction, permits the 
owner to broaden his future construction activities, 
thus creating a future income to the city. 

C. Cost. 

1 . The cost of closing procedure upon the city would 
be about $1,000. 

PROJECT No. 3. CLOSING OF PEN LUCY AVENUE 
BETWEEN OLD YORK ROAD AND ELLERSLIE AVENUE 

Priority A Block 3921 

A. Necessity. 

1. This short strip of street creates a natural traffic 
hazard. 

2. Essential that the block be united in order to 
provide better future establishment. 

B. Advantages. 

1. The closing of this street will permit a future 
establishment in one unit to cover entire block which 
will prove quite beneficial to city, as well as to the 
neighborhood. 

C. Cost. 

1 . The cost of this closing has been estimated at about 
$600. 



96 



WAVERLYA STUDY IN 






PROJECT No. 4. CLOSING OF BELGIAN AVENUE 
EAST FORTY-FIRST STREET AND CATOR AVENUE FROM 
150 FEET EAST OF ELLERSLIE AVENUE TO INTER- 
SECTION OF ALAMEDA AVENUE 

Priority A 

A. Necessity. 

1. To provide better utilization of land due to the 
present grade condition. 

2. At present projected streets not constructed. 

B. Advantages. 

1. The omission of these streets will permit owners to 
develop their land to its best use. 

2. It will be a valuable saving to the city from the 
standpoint of expense for the construction of the pro- 
jected street proper. The necessary grading would 
prove prohibitive hi cost, as well as detrimental to ad- 
jacent properties which would be left considerably 
below the crown of the street. This would necessitate 
expensive fill and virtually rebuilding adjacent land 
before any kind of construction could commence. 

C. Cost.- 

1. Preparation of an administrative order for the 



omission of these streets from the main or city street 
plot constitute the entire cost. 

2. The present utilities now located in the street will 
more than take care of the future need, and there will 
be no need for any relocation of same. 

PROJECT No. 5. CLOSING OF CENTRAL AVENUE 
FROM CATOR AVENUE TO NEW EXTENSION OF DUM- 
BARTON AVENUE 

Priority A 

A. Necessity. 

1. Street not paved and has no connection with other 
streets except a possible by-pass between Cator and Pen 
Lucy Avenue. 

2. With the through connection of Ellerslie Avenue 
this street is not needed. 

B. Advantages. 

1. This closing will result in valuable distribution of 
present land and tax returns to the city will be increased. 

C. Cost. 

1 . The possible cost of closing procedure to be encum- 
bered upon the city will be approximately $1,000. 



NEIGHBORHOOD CONSERVATION 



97 



tttUP 



ill